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Llanelwedd Dig Diary, 2008


Keep an eye on this Dig Diary for progress of the excavation of a second Bronze Age cairn at Llanelwedd by CPAT. The dig will take place over 5 weeks, between 20 October and 21 November. Like the excavation of the first cairn, the project is funded by the Aggregates Levy Sustainability Fund and Cadw, with help from Hanson’s Quarry. The site lies in a working quarry and is not accessible to the general public.

16th October 2008 (Day 0)

CPAT photo, Llanelwedd, 2008

Clearing away the bracken from the surface of the cairn in preparation for the excavations proper, which begin next week. © CPAT

Like the first cairn excavated last year, the excavation of this second cairn is being carried out in advance of further stone quarrying. Since the end of the dig on the first cairn the quarry has extended about a further 30 metres, almost up to the edge of this second cairn, as you can see from the fence line in the accompanying photo. On this day, in the week before the start of the dig, a start was made in clearing away the vegetation from the surface of the cairn, which at first sight looks bigger than the first cairn. Clearing away the bracken revealed a slight hollow in the centre which suggests that it has been dug into in the past, possibly on the same occasion as the first cairn which is known to have been partially excavated by the Reverend D. Edmondes Owen of Llanelwedd in 1906.

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20th October 2008 (Day 1)

CPAT photo, Llanelwedd, 2008

Taking spot heights over the surface of the cairn before the start of the excavations. © CPAT

The excavation team met up on site for the first time. Despite high winds and a generally wet day we managed to make reasonable progress – setting up the surveying grid, laying out the site, making an initial plan, and starting the excavation of a first quadrant of the site.

After clearance of the vegetation the cairn looks as though it might be about 12 metres in diameter, up to about a metre high and with a ‘crater’ at the centre, perhaps up to 2–3 metres across and half a metre deep which represents an earlier ‘robber trench’, which as noted above perhaps dates to the early 20th century. We are keeping our fingers crossed that this second cairn is another Bronze Age burial monument, like the one excavated last year – rather than simply a clearance cairn. Those who dug the ‘robber trench’ clearly thought so, but time will tell.

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21st October 2008 (Day 2)

CPAT photo, Llanelwedd, 2008

Continuing with the initial clearance of the north-east quadrant of the cairn on the second day of the dig. © CPAT

Much drier weather on the second day of the day enabled us to make good progress with the initial clearance and excavation of the north-east quadrant of the cairn.

There are still question marks about whether the cairn is a prehistoric burial monument or whether it is much later in date, but hopefully this will be resolved in the next few days. As we found with the excavation of the Beaker cairn last year, it appears that a considerable amount of stone clearance and land improvement had been carried out over this southern end of Carneddau in perhaps the 18th and earlier 19th-centuries, resulting in the creation of stone clearance cairns. Some of the undoubted clearance cairns are quite small and only a couple of metres across while others are larger, with dimensions similar to those of Bronze Age burial monuments.

The presence of several sherds of post-medieval pottery in the topsoil near the cairn suggests that agriculture was taking place in the area at that period.

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22nd October 2008 (Day 3)

CPAT photo, Llanelwedd, 2008

Making a detailed plan of the stones in the north-east quadrant of the cairn on the third day. © CPAT

Continuing dry weather on the third day allowed us to complete the cleaning on the first quadrant of the cairn and make a start on detailed recording.

While the planning was being carried out the rest of the team seized the opportunity of taking a closer look at a number of other archaeological sites near the cairn, hidden by bracken and nettles. These form a cluster of derelict building structures, including a possible house site, outbuildings and other structures just to the north which seem likely to be medieval to post-medieval in date and possibly contemporary with the evidence for land use in the vicinity.

This cluster of sites was first discovered by the Trust during fieldwork in 1996 to identify sites of archaeological interest that would be affected by extensions to the quarry.

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23rd October 2008 (Day 4)

CPAT photo, Llanelwedd, 2008

Exploratory work on a possible corn-drying kiln, carried out while recording work on the cairn was being completed. © CPAT

High winds and damp weather hampered progress with recording work on the first quadrant of the cairn, but this was completed by the end of the day.

Early suggestions are that one of the later structures next to the cairn which we began to look at yesterday (while the recording work on the cairn was being completed) is perhaps a medieval or post-medieval corn-drying kiln. This is set into the slope of the hill and appears to have a stokehole and flue at the downhill side and a drying chamber on the uphill side. The structure is one of the first rural corn-drying kilns to have been found in Radnorshire.

Today, the land on which these sites lie is used exclusively for grazing cattle and sheep. The corn-drying kiln appears to tie in with other evidence that arable farming was carried out in the past on this marginal hillside, at a height of about 280 metres above sea level.

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24th October 2008 (Day 5)

CPAT photo, Llanelwedd, 2008

Further cleaning work in progress on the stones making up the cairn on Day 5 of the dig. © CPAT

Dry, sunny weather all day enabled us to make further progress on the cairn which is beginning to look more and more as though it might be a clearance cairn set on a low natural mound rather than a burial monument.

As yet there is no dating evidence for the cairn, however, and there is some suggestion of larger stones set around the outside. To make certain of what the site is we have therefore begun the process of removing the upper layers of stone and looking to see whether there is any clear patterning in the stones lower down in the cairn.

Some further work on the corn-drying kiln was also possible while this was taking place which has revealed further details of the structure which we are hoping to be able to return to next week.

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27th October 2008 (Day 6)

CPAT photo, Llanelwedd, 2008

Work in progress on the Llanelwedd corn-drying kiln, close to the cairn. © CPAT

Good progress was again possible on this mostly sunny but cold day. The status of the cairn has still to be resolved, since although it seems most likely to represent a clearance cairn, a ring of larger boulders towards the base in the excavated quadrant has the appearance of an outer kerb. Hopefully this will be clarified in the next few days.

Further work on the adjacent corn-drying kiln is beginning to reveal more of its structure (see photo to left). The drying chamber in the foreground is linked to the stokehole towards the background by flue with stone uprights and a lintel at each end. It resembles a somewhat smaller kiln excavated by the Trust in the medieval town of New Radnor in the early 1990s. The New Radnor kiln was associated with oat grains and is thought to probably date to the 15th century. No dating evidence for the Llanelwedd corn-drying kiln has been found so far.

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28th October 2008 (Day 7)

CPAT photo, Llanelwedd, 2008

The basal layer of the cairn in the north-west quadrant with a possible kerb of larger stones around the outside. © CPAT

Sleet and snow throughout most of the day made working conditions difficult and forced the abandonment of the site before the end of the day. Before we left, however, good progress was made with the excavation of both the cairn and the kiln.

The cairn remains a bit ambiguous and as can be seen from the photograph there are suggestions of a circular ‘kerb’ of larger stones sitting on the buried soil below the mound. In order to be certain of whether the site is an ancient burial mound or later clearance cairn we need to see more of the site. A start was therefore made in opening up a new trench in the south-east quadrant, before we had to abandon the site due to bad weather.

The plan of the corn-drying kiln is continuing to become much clearer, especially in the area of the stokehole on the downhill side to the west. The wind blows predominantly from the west and this clearly explains why the stokehole and flue face in this direction.

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29th October 2008 (Day 8)

CPAT photo, Llanelwedd, 2008

Trench excavated across the south-west quadrant of the cairn. The corn-drying kiln is surrounded by the orange fencing just beyond the cairn. © CPAT

Poor weather conditions (including frozen ground at the beginning of the day and rain at the end) continued to hamper progress, but work continued on the trench across the south-west quadrant of the cairn. This trench (see photo) gives a better idea of the overall dimensions of the cairn and in time will hopefully also show whether the apparent ‘kerb’ of larger stones continues on to this side. We are still looking for evidence for the date of the cairn, which may give a clue to its purpose.

The orange fencing just beyond the cairn shows the location of the corn-drying kiln set into the slope of the hill, where work continues on the stokehole and the drying chamber which, weather permitting, we are hoping to report on again in tomorrow’s diary.

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30th October 2008 (Day 9)

CPAT photo, Llanelwedd, 2008

The corn-drying kiln viewed from the uphill side, during the course of excavation. © CPAT

Decent weather all day and a red sky last thing, hopefully promising a dry day tomorrow. As promised, today’s diary mostly catches up on the work we have been carrying out between times on the corn-drying kiln next to the cairn.

Today’s first photo shows the corn-drying kiln from the uphill side, with the figure in the foreground kneeling in the drying chamber. Below the figure in the centre is the flue leading to the stokehole, which the two figures in the background are working in. The stokehole shows intensive signs of burning and today produced two small sherds of pottery which suggest that the kiln perhaps dates to the 17th century.

CPAT photo, Llanelwedd, 2008

Trilobite fossil in one of the mudstone slabs used in the construction of the corn-drying kiln. © CPAT




The geology of the kiln is proving interesting. The main part of the structure appears to be built of quarried dolerite blocks probably from the hill itself. For the construction of the flue and levelling around the top of the walls of the drying chamber, however, the builders chose to use thin slabs of Ordovician mudstone, perhaps from another quarry in the Builth Wells area. These thinner slabs contain distinctive fossils, including a trilobite visible in the photograph to the left. Interestingly, this specimen appears to be very similar to one illustrated by the Welsh scholar, Edward Lhwyd in 1679, probably the first trilobite to be recorded in a scientific journal.

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31st October 2008 (Day 10)

CPAT photo, Llanelwedd, 2008

Ground-level view showing the possible ‘kerb’ around the north-eastern side of the cairn and the central ‘crater’ representing a later robbing trench. © CPAT

Work continued on both the cairn and adjacent corn-drying kiln on this dry and mostly sunny day but with a bitterly cold wind and snow still lying on the surrounding higher hilltops.

The cairn still remains enigmatic, even after opening up a greater area. The upper levels of the cairn seem to represent an as yet undated clearance cairn, but we still have to resolve whether the larger stones surrounded by a possible ‘kerb’ towards the base of the cairn represent an earlier structured cairn or whether this is simply an earlier phase of the clearance cairn. Further work is clearly called for next week.

CPAT photo, Llanelwedd, 2008

Work in progress on the corn-drying kiln. Note the black ashy soil on one side of the stokehole and the flue entrance. © CPAT








The stone-revetted stokehole of the corn-drying kiln was finally emptied of later collapsed material and infilling, revealing a basal layer of black ashy soil, especially on the northern side, surviving from when the kiln was last fired. Next week we expect to spend time completing the recording of the structure and sampling the burnt deposits in the stokehole.

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3rd November 2008 (Day 11)

CPAT photo, Llanelwedd, 2008

Sampling in progress on the burnt deposits in the stokehole of the corn-drying kiln. © CPAT

Mostly warm and sunny weather helped us to make good progress with further excavation of the cairn and drawing elevations of the kiln.

Sampling was carried out on the charred deposits in the stokehole of the corn-drying kiln. Analysis of these samples will hopefully tell us what crops were being dried as well as the fuel that was used to fire the kiln. As noted on Day 6, the corn-drying kiln excavated by the Trust at New Radnor was associated with charred oat grains. A further 15th-century corn-drying kiln excavated by the Trust at Collfryn in Montgomeryshire in the early 1980s produced grains of oats and wheat.

CPAT photo, Llanelwedd, 2008

High-level view of the north-east quadrant of the cairn showing the possible ‘kerb’ of larger stones around the base. © CPAT

Further recording and excavation is still being undertaken on the cairn. The question of its date and purpose continue to remain elusive but should become clearer in the next day or two.

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4th November 2008 (Day 12)

CPAT photo, Llanelwedd, 2008

The buried soil below the cairn in the north-east quadrant, with the outer ‘kerb’ left in place. © CPAT

Weather mostly mild and misty, but with sunny intervals.

The lowest layers of the cairn were removed in the north-east quadrant, down to the surface of the soil buried below it. Excavation of the central robber pit (perhaps dug in the early 20th century) produced tiny scraps of charcoal and burnt bone. Further work still needs to be done, but this suggests that the robber pit may have disturbed a prehistoric burial deposit. Work also started on opening up a larger area of the south-west quadrant of the cairn in order to try and see whether the ‘kerb’ runs all the way round the cairn.

CPAT photo, Llanelwedd, 2008

Recording in progress on the outer elevation of the flue in the upper face of the stokehole. © CPAT

It was also possible to spend some time on drawing elevations and profiles across the stokehole and drying chamber of the corn-drying kiln, in order to make as complete a record as possible of its size, shape and construction.

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5th November 2008 (Day 13)

CPAT photo, Llanelwedd, 2008

Cleaning in progress on the upper layers of stone on the south-west quadrant of the cairn. © CPAT

Weather mostly mild and dull, with occasional light drizzle.

Work continued on the cleaning the upper layers of stone in the south-west quadrant, which will eventually show whether the ‘kerb’ runs all the way round the cairn. Further investigation suggests that the central robber pit (mentioned in yesterday’s diary) probably cuts into an earlier grave filled with soil and stone, central to the stone ‘kerb’. This probable grave produced a complete flint barbed-and-tanged arrowhead, similar to the one found close to the first cairn excavated in 2007. Despite some earlier misgivings, it now seems certain that the second cairn really is a Bronze Age burial monument!

CPAT photo, Llanelwedd, 2008

Barbed-and-tanged arrowhead found in the probable central grave. © CPAT

The flint barbed-and-tanged arrowhead belongs to a type which has often been found in the graves of Beaker archers. This raises the interesting possibility that the first and second cairns were broadly contemporary and represent a phase of colonization of the hills north of Builth Wells in the Early Bronze Age. Significantly, this range of hills is called Carneddau, the Welsh word for cairns or heaps of stones.

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6th November 2008 (Day 14)

CPAT photo, Llanelwedd, 2008

Drawing the section across the cairn exposed in the north-west quadrant. © CPAT

A dull and misty day, with some drizzle.

The initial cleaning of the south-west quadrant of the cairn was completed and a start made on clearing the north-west quadrant. A drawing was made of the section through the cairn in the north-west quadrant of the site. This gives a cross-section through the original prehistoric cairn, kerb and probable central grave. It also shows the later clearance overlying the original cairn and the later robber pit cutting down through the cairn and into the central grave.

Planning of the corn-drying kiln was also completed. If there is opportunity it is hoped to carry out some further work on the kiln to find out a bit more about it.

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7th November 2008 (Day 15)

CPAT photo, Llanelwedd, 2008

Cleaning in progress on the upper layers of stone on the south-east quadrant of the cairn. © CPAT

Wintry sunshine, light drizzle and dramatic rainbows.

The cleaning of the north-west quadrant of the cairn was completed and a start made on the last remaining quadrant, to the south-east. It now seems likely that (like the first cairn excavated last year) the burial cairn was sited on top a low volcanic ridge which outcrops in places just a few centimetres below the ground surface.

CPAT photo, Llanelwedd, 2008

The excavation team during the first part of the dig. The last few weeks will see slight changes in personnel. © CPAT

The clearance cairn which overlies the burial cairn is still undated though it may belong to the same period of agricultural exploitation as the nearby corn-drying kiln: so far the only topsoil finds from the site appear to be 17th-century in date.

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10th November 2008 (Day 16)

CPAT photo, Llanelwedd, 2008

‘Before and after’ views of the post-medieval corn-drying kiln, set into one of the rocky ridges on Llanelwedd Rocks. © CPAT

Weather cold, windy and wet, though not quite as bad as forecast.

Work progressed well on cleaning the south-east quadrant of the cairn which is now almost completed. In the next few days we are hoping to continue with taking away the upper, later levels of the cairn, looking for more of the kerb which appears to define the early, prehistoric burial cairn.

In the meantime, shown alongside is a ‘before and after’ view of the post-medieval corn-drying kiln, set into one of the rocky ridges on Llanelwedd Rocks, with the stokehole in the foreground and the drying chamber in the background. Before excavation only part of the drying chamber was clearly visible, as a slight hollow in the ground.

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11th November 2008 (Day 17)

CPAT photo, Llanelwedd, 2008

Overall view of the cairn from the east with the kerb of the prehistoric burial cairn exposed in the north-east quadrant visible to the right. The Cambrian Mountains in the west are visible in the far distance. © CPAT

Weather sunny and mostly dry with a cold wind.

The cleaning of the cairn has been very largely completed. It now looks as though the later clearance cairn overlay the original burial cairn excentrically, extending further to the south-west than the original prehistoric burial cairn (the far left-hand side in the accompanying photo).

Work has begun on removing the upper levels of the cairn in the south-west quadrant and although it is still early days it looks as though the circular kerb of larger stones defining the burial cairn (first identified in the north-east quadrant) continues on to this side of the monument. This should become clearer in the next day or two.

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12th November 2008 (Day 18)

CPAT photo, Llanelwedd, 2008

Excavation in progress on the north-west and south-west quadrants of the cairn. © CPAT

Weather again dry and sunny with a cold wind.

Work continued on removing the overlying clearance cairn in the north-west and south-west quadrants, revealing more of the kerb around the perimeter of the earlier burial cairn. The kerb, which has now been revealed around three-quarters of the circumference of the cairn, is largely composed of a low circle of large rounded boulders which seem to have simply been placed on the buried ground surface. The general form is similar to the first cairn excavated last year at Llanelwedd, though in that instance the kerb was generally taller and made of upright slabs of quarried local stone set into the ground.

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13th November 2008 (Day 19)

CPAT photo, Llanelwedd, 2008

Work in progress on completing the removal of the overlying clearance cairn from the north-west quadrant of the cairn, inside the circular kerb of boulders. © CPAT

A dull, damp but fairly mild day.

Further excavation was carried out on the north-west quadrant of the cairn, removing the upcast from the central robber pit as well as the debris that had subsequently collected within the robber pit itself.

This work appears to confirm earlier suggestions that the original burial cairn was fairly flat-topped and about the same height as most of the kerb stones placed around the outside and forming a circle about 6.4 metres in diameter.

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14th November 2008 (Day 20)

CPAT photo, Llanelwedd, 2008

Above is a photo of the second cairn on Day 20 of the excavation in 2008. Below is the first cairn on Day 19 of the excavation in 2007. © CPAT

Another dull but thankfully mild and dry day.

Work continued on removing the fill of the central robber pit and on taking away the later clearance cairn from the south-east quadrant – to be completed next week.

The two photos alongside show the first Llanelwedd cairn (bottom - excavated in 2007) and the second cairn (top - excavated in 2008) on virtually the same day of excavation, highlighting some of the similarities and differences of the two monuments. The two burial cairns are both irregularly circular and roughly 6.4 metres (20 feet) in diameter. Both have an outer kerb, composed of upright quarried slabs in the case of the first cairn and of rounded boulders in the case of the second cairn.

Despite later disturbance it seems that both burial monuments would originally have been fairly low and flat-topped. One of the main differences between the two monuments is that the first cairn had a central stone burial cist overlain by a large capstone, whereas the second cairn seems to have a simple burial pit.

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17th November 2008 (Day 21)

CPAT photo, Llanelwedd, 2008

Aerial view of part of Hanson’s Quarry at Llanelwedd, photographed earlier in 2008, showing the location of the two excavated burial cairns. © CPAT

Misty and partly drizzly day, with rain towards the end.

The main task of the day was completing the clearance of the south-east quadrant of the cairn, which means that the kerb is now visible around the entire circumference. Unfortunately is was so dull and wet by the end of the day that it was impossible to photograph the site – but hopefully this will be possible tomorrow, when better weather is promised.

Instead, here is an aerial view which shows the location of the two excavated cairn, close to the edge of Llanelwedd Quarry. Cairn 1 was excavated in 2007 and cairn 2 is being excavated 2 in 2008 – both in advance of further quarrying.

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18th November 2008 (Day 22)

CPAT photo, Llanelwedd, 2008

Above: the kerb on the eastern side of the cairn at the end of excavation on Day 21. Below: the extra large kerb stone on the north-western side of the cairn (scale 2 metres). © CPAT

Weather mostly dry and mild with some sunshine and some drizzle.

Work continued with the excavation and recording of the burial cairn. Now that the whole of the burial cairn has been exposed it is clear that though most of the kerb stones are of roughly the same size, one of the boulders on the north-west side is exceptionally large (see photo). It is uncertain whether this larger stone has any special significance, though similar door-like arrangements have been noted in the case of a number of other similar monuments.

One of the kerb stones on about the opposite side of the cairn is also unusually large. Judging by the moss on the surface of these two boulders, they were probably the only kerb stones that were visible in the surface of the cairn before the start of excavation. Part of the outer face of the larger boulder had split off and fallen outwards (visible in the photo), which seems to confirm the suspicion that the outer kerb remained visible when the cairn was completed.

CPAT photo, Llanelwedd, 2008

Visit by a party of school children from Llanelwedd Primary School, which lies just at the foot of the hill. © CPAT


As well as continuing with the excavation and recording of the burial cairn, some work was also carried out on the corn-drying kiln – sampling charred deposits in the flue and looking at the relationship of the kiln to a possible boundary nearby.

The highlight of the day was a visit to the site by a group of pupils from Llanelwedd Primary School and their teachers, kindly arranged by staff of Hanson’s Quarry. The children looked at both the cairn and the corn-drying kiln and asked a lot of searching questions.

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19th November 2008 (Day 23)

CPAT photo, Llanelwedd, 2008

Recording in progress on the stones of the north-west quadrant of the burial cairn. © CPAT

A dry, sunny and windy day, ending in a glorious sunset.

Vital recording work continued on the stone-by-stone plan of the burial cairn and on the north-south cross-section. The basal courses of the south-west quadrant were removed to match the north-east quadrant, revealing more of the central burial pit.

CPAT photo, Llanelwedd, 2008

Sampling in progress in the boggy area just to the west of the burial cairn. © CPAT


With the help of environmental archaeologists from the Department of Archaeology, University of Wales Lampeter, sampling has been carried out in the boggy area slightly lower downhill, just to the west of the second burial cairn at Llanelwedd. It is hoped that the analysis of these deposits might throw some light on the environmental background to the two burial cairns as well the more recent phase of agriculture represented by the clearance cairns and corn-drying kiln, though the sampled deposits are much shallower than anticipated.

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20th November 2008 (Day 24)

CPAT photo, Llanelwedd, 2008

Removal of the basal layers of the burial cairn in progress, leaving the outer kerb stones in position. © CPAT

A dry and fairly sunny day; generally mild but with a cold wind.

Work continued on completing the removal of the whole of the basal courses of the prehistoric burial cairn. The way that the stones in the cairn overlay each other suggests that it was built from the centre outwards, probably with the kerb added last of all. The first burial cairn, excavated in 2007, seemed to have been built in a similar way.

The photograph to the left shows that the outer kerb stones have so far been left in position. The exceptionally large kerb stone, noted in the diary entry for Day 22 as possibly representing a door, is visible in the foreground.

CPAT photo, Llanelwedd, 2008

Excavations in progress on the circular oven built on top of the flue of the corn-drying kiln. © CPAT


Further work on the corn-drying kiln has unexpectedly shown that it doubled-up as an outdoor bakehouse. The reddened, circular floor and part of the walls of a dome-shaped stone-built oven have been found, set on top of the flue of the corn-drying kiln. The oven would have been pre-heated by burning sticks which were raked out into the stokehole of the kiln before the bread-baking began.

It seems likely that the corn-drying kiln and the oven were used by the occupants of the possible house site a little further to the north (noted in the diary entry for Day 3). Outside ovens were more commonly used for baking bread in medieval and early post-medieval times, when many houses had simple open hearths. From about 1600 onwards houses were often built with a chimney which incorporated a built-in bread oven.

We had originally planned to complete the excavations and the Dig Diary tomorrow, on Day 25. However, with a number of things still to complete, it now seems likely that we will be carrying on for another couple of days.

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21st November 2008 (Day 25)

CPAT photo, Llanelwedd, 2008

The burial cairn on Day 25, showing the stone-filled burial pit at the centre of the cairn. © CPAT

Dry, windy and cold; bright at first but dull later on.

On the prehistoric burial cairn work focused on cleaning up the buried soil below the basal courses of the cairn to show the extent of the underlying burial pit which has been partly disturbed by the later robber pit.

At this level the burial pit looks quite large, with some large stones in its upper filling. This may suggest that the burial pit originally held organic material – such as a wooden coffin perhaps – that rotted away, creating a void into which the overlying cairn had sunk.

CPAT photo, Llanelwedd, 2008

The corn-drying kiln and bakehouse on Day 25. © CPAT

Further work on the corn-drying kiln has provided additional evidence of the way in which it was built. It now looks as though the middle part of the structure – the flue of the corn-drying kiln and the overlying oven – were built first, and that the drying chamber of the corn-drying kiln and the stokehole shared by the oven and the corn -drying kiln were added afterwards. It seems likely that at the very least the drying chamber of the corn-drying kiln and the oven would originally have been roofed, but more work is needed to be certain what it would have looked like.

In Wales, corn-drying kilns used to provide a warm meeting place for a shimli – a gathering of youngsters who entertained themselves with singing, games and story telling.

In the photograph to the right, the stokehole of the corn-drying kiln can be seen in the foreground, the drying chamber in the background, and the bread oven overlying the flue of the corn-drying kiln in the middle.

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