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A Research Framework for the Archaeology of Wales

A Research Framework for the Archaeology of Wales

 

East and North East Wales Archaeological Resource Audit

 

Neolithic - key sites

 


Domestic

Breiddin hillfort, phase 1 occupation (Neolithic/Bronze Age), Bausley with Criggion, Powys

Late Neolithic/early Bronze Age pottery and flint scatter possibly associated with occupation floor under hillfort excavation

Excavation Musson /1969

Musson, C R, 1970; Musson, C R, 1971; Musson, C R, 1972; Musson, C R, 1974; Musson, C R, 1991;

 

Brenig 6: timber building, Llanrhaeadr-yng-nghinmeirch, Denbighshire

Possible circular timber building underlying Bronze Age kerbed cairn (CPAT SMR PRN 43175)

Excavation Lynch, F / 1973

Bradley, R, 2000; Lynch, F, 1993;

 

Collfryn enclosure (Neolithic phase), Llansantffraid, Powys

Evidence of earlier prehistoric activity was uncovered during excavations of the Iron Age enclosure in 1980-82. A small assemblage of Beaker pottery and flintwork (CPAT SMR PRN 70911)

Excavation CPAT / 1980-82

Britnell, W, 1989;

 

Dyserth Castle, Neolithic site, Denbighshire

Neolithic features beneath Medieval Castle

Excavation 1914

Davies, E, 1949; Glenn, T A, 1915; Grimes, W F, 1951; Piggot, S & Grimes, W F, 1935; RCAHM, 1982;

 

Ffridd Faldwyn Hillfort, phase 1 (neolithic), Montgomery, Powys

Probable neolithic settlement beneath Iron Age hillfort. Attested by flint and pottery finds. (CPAT SMR PRN 50102)

Excavation O'Neil, B H St J / 1937-39

Arnold, C J, 1987; Britnell, W J, Martin, C H R & Hankinson, R, 2000; Burnham, H, 1995; Clough, T H McK & Cummins, W A, 1988; Gibson, A, 1995; Kenyon, 1956; O'Neil, B H St J, 1942;

 

Four Crosses Barrow Cemetery, site 2 (Neolithic), Llandysilio, Powys

Late Neolithic occupation attested in barrow excavation - finds and C14 dates (CPAT SMR PRN 50524)

Excavation CPAT / 1984

Warrilow, W, Owen, G & Britnell, W, 1986;

 

Gop Cave, Trelawnyd and Gwaenysgor, Flintshire

The rock shelter was excavated in 1886 and the cave in 1908. Finds show use from Palaeolithic to Neolithic.

Excavation Boyd Dawkins / 1886-1908

Boyd Dawkins, 1901; Boyd Dawkins, 1902; Boyd Dawkins, 1912; Daniel, G E, 1950; Davies, E, 1949; Glenn, T A, 1913; Glenn, T A, 1926; Glenn, T A & Piggot, S, 1935; Hughes, M J, 1912; Lynch, F, 1969; RCAHM, 1982; Stead, W H & Bridgewood, R, 1957; Stead, W H & Bridgewood, R, 1957; Valdemar, A E & Jones, R D, 1970;

 

Gwaenysgor Cave, Trelawnyd and Gwaenysgor, Flintshire

Cave with Neolithic occupation.

Excavation Jackson, J W / 1950-60

Valdemar, A E & Jones, R D, 1970;

 

Moel y Gaer Rhosesmor hillfort, Flintshire

Various Neolithic finds and a C14 date attest occupation beneath hillfort (CPAT SMR PRN 100293)

Excavation Guilbert, G / 1973ff

Davies, E, 1949; Gibson, A, 1995; Guilbert, G C, 1973; Guilbert, G C, 1974; Lloyd, G, 1955; RCAHM, 1912;

 

Nant-y-Graig/Brysgill caves, Llannefydd, Conwy

A series of nine caves of various sizes Exploration in 1871 found evidence of occupation probably of Neolithic date. (CPAT SMR PRN 19309)

Excavation Owen, H / 1946

Oldham, T, 1989;

 

Nant-y-fuach rock shelter, Dyserth, Denbighshire

Rock shelter excavated 1950 to 1957. Crouched inhumations with Neolithic finds (CPAT SMR PRN 102106)

Excavation Stead, W / 1950-7

Gibson, A, 1995; Longworth, I, 1958; Lynch, F, 1969; Stead, W, 1958; Trump, D, 1957; Valdemar, A E & Jones, R D, 1970;

 

Orchid Cave I, Llanferres, Denbighshire

Cave with excavated finds of human bones dated to Neolithic and C14 date (CPAT SMR PRN 34750)

Excavation Anon / 1970

Aldhouse-Green, S et al, 1996; Brassil, K S & Guilbert, G C, 1982; Guilbert, G, 1982;

 

Plas Heaton Cave, Henllan, Denbighshire

Cave excavated in the 1860s. Neolithic matreial (CPAT SMR PRN 100569)

Excavated ???? / 1860s

Davies, E, 1929; Davies, E, 1931; Dawkins, W B, 1874;

 

Rough Close enclosure, Old Radnor, Powys

Truncated single ditched enclosure. C14 dates (CPAT SMR PRN 50187)

Excavation CPAT / 1994

Gibson, A, 1994; Gibson, A, 1999; Gibson, A, 2000;

 

Sarn y Bryn Caled junction, excavation 1998-9, Welshpool, Powys

Excavation of two scatters of Neolithic pottery (over 100 sherds) and several flints (CPAT SMR PRN 70271)

Excavation CAP / 1998-9

Blockley, K, 1998; Blockley, K, 1999;

 

Trelystan Round Barrows (Neolithic settlement), Trewern, Powys

Neolithic settlement represented by stave-walled structures one associated with Grooved Ware sherds beneath barrow (CPAT SMR PRN 50642)

Excavation CPAT / 1979

Britnell, W, 1982; Gibson, A, 1996;

 

Ystrad Hynod barrow, pre-barrow occupation, Trefeglwys, Powys

Hearth and fire trench on buried ground surface beneath barrow (CPAT SMR PRN 50472)

Apsimon, A M, 1973;

 

 

 

Monument (by form)

Abercynafon waterlogged site I, Talybont-on-usk, Powys

Accidental find by Forest Enterprise in 1994 of worked wood and tree trunks. Dendro dating indicated a structure dated to around 2700BC. Excavation in 1995 revealed horizontally arranged split tree trunks plus large quantities of eroded roundwood and splitwood debris including roundwood uprights. No clear structure identified. Analysis of the waterlogged deposits indicates the natural formation of a pond around which the structure(s) built.

Waterlogged seeds recorded in plant macrofossil samples include buttercup type, water crowfoot, water-starwort, blackberry, sedge and birch. Charcoal was also present (CPAT SMR PRN 23060)

Excavation CPAT / 1996

Caseldine, A, 1995; Earwood, C & Thomas, D, 1995; Hillam, J & Hall, C, 1998; Rees, S E, 1997; Thomas, D & Earwood, C, 1996;

 

 

Religious, Ritual and Funerary

Dyffryn Lane Barrow I, henge, Berriew, Powys

Henge defined by bank 40m diameter and 1m high with internal ditch 13m wide and 0.3m deep. Traces of outer bank 14m wide and 0.3m high on north-west side. Geophysical survey, survey (CPAT SMR PRN 50290)

Geophysics 1992

Survey 1992

Geophysical Surveys, 1992; Gibson, A M, 1998; Gibson, A M & Britnell, B, 1992; Moore-Colyer, R J, 1996;

 

Ffostyll long cairn I, Talgarth, Powys

Chambered long cairn Part excavated by Vulliamry 1921-23. Two, possibly three, lateral chambers with at least 10 individuals and possibly some Bronze Age pottery (CPAT SMR PRN 553)

Excavation Vulliamy, C E / 1921-23

Burnham, H, 1995; Grimes, W F, 1951; Nash, G, 1997; Powell, T G E, 1969; RCAHMW, 1997; Vulliamy, C E, 1921; Vulliamy, C E, 1923;

 

Ffostyll long cairn II, Talgarth, Powys

Chambered long cairn Part excavated by Vulliamy 1921-23. Gallery grave at north-east end with at least 9 individuals. (CPAT SMR PRN 552)

Excavation Vulliamy, C E / 1921-23

Nash, G, 1997; Powell, T G E, 1969; RCAHMW, 1997; Vulliamy, C E, 1921; Vulliamy, C E, 1923;

 

Four Crosses Barrow Cemetery, site 5 (neolithic), Llandysilio, Powys

Neolithic elements of multiperiod barrow. Grave goods and C14 dates (CPAT SMR PRN 50515)

Excavation CPAT / 1983

Warrilow, W, Owen, G & Britnell, W, 1986;

 

Four Crosses Barrow Cemetery, site 7 (neolithic), Llandysilio, Powys

Neolithic / Beaker phase of multiperiod barrow (CPAT SMR PRN 50553)

Excavation CPAT / 1984-85

Warrilow, W, Owen, G & Britnell, W, 1986;

 

Gop Cave (Neolithic), Trelawnyd and Gwaenysgor, Flintshire

Human skeletons from chamber in rock shelter. Sherds of decorated pottery possibly Peterborough type were found with the skeletons. Also Graig Llwyd axe found near cave entrance. (CPAT SMR PRN 102263)

Excavation Boyd Dawkins

Boyd Dawkins, 1901; Boyd Dawkins, 1902; Boyd Dawkins, 1912; CBA PETROLOGY, 1982; Daniel, G E, 1950; Davies, E, 1949; Gibson, A, 1995; Glenn, T A, 1913; Green, H S, 1980; Jackson, J W, 1913; Lynch, F, 1969; McInnes, I, 1968; Stead, W H & Bridgewood, R, 1957;

 

Gwernvale long cairn, Crickhowell, Powys

Chambered long cairn excavated 1977-78. The cairn overlies the settlement. C14 dates (CPAT SMR PRN 687)

Excavation CPAT / 1977-78

Britnell, W, 1980; Britnell, W J, 1977; Britnell, W J, 1977; Britnell, W J, 1978; Britnell, W J, 1979; Britnell, W J & Savory, H N, 1984; Burnham, H, 1995; Colt Hoare, R, 1803; Gibson, A, 1993; Gibson, A, 1995; Gibson, A & Kinnes, I, 1997; Jones, T, 1809; Nash, G, 1997; Olding, F, 2000; RCAHMW, 1997;

 

Hindwell II palisaded enclosure, Old Radnor, Powys

Elliptical palisaded enclosure identified by APs and tested by Geophysics and excavation. Comprises 1400 oak posts enclosing and area of 34 hectares - probably the largest late Neolithic enclosure in Britain (CPAT SMR PRN 19376)

Excavation CPAT / 1998

Geophysics SEPAH / 1998

Survey SEPAH / 1998

British Archaeology, 1996; Gibson, A, 1994; Gibson, A, 1995; Gibson, A, 1996; Gibson, A, 1997; Gibson, A, 1998; Gibson, A, 1998; Gibson, A, 1999; Gibson, A, 2000; Gibson, A, 2000; Gibson, A M & Jones, N W, 1998; Gibson, A, Becker, H, Grogan, E, Jones, N & Masterson, B, 1999;

 

Holywell Racecourse earth circle, Ysceifiog, Flintshire

Circular bank and ditch overlain by Offa's Dyke. Identified as possible henge Suggested that associated earthwork may be a cursus monument running up to join this earth circle from the south, rather than a section of Offa's Dyke as originally believed (CPAT SMR PRN 102385)

Excavation Fox / 1926

Excavation CPAT / 1996

Burnham, H, 1995; Clark, G, 1936; Davies, E, 1949; Fox, C, 1926; Gibson, A, 1999; Hemp, W J, 1923; Owen, W G, 1996;

 

Little Lodge long barrow, Gwernyfed, Powys

Chambered long barrow. Excavated by Vulliamy 1928-9.  (CPAT SMR PRN 512)

Excavation Vulliamy, C E / 1928-29

Daniel, G E, 1950; Grimes, W F, 1951; Nash, G, 1997; RCAHMW, 1997; Vulliamy, C E, 1929;

 

Lower Luggy long barrow, Berriew, Powys

Earthen long barrow identified from Aps and tested by excavation (CPAT SMR PRN 3968)

Excavation CPAT / 1994

Geophysics Armstrong, B / 1994

Gibson, A, 1994; Gibson, A, 1995; Gibson, A, 1995; Gibson, A, 1997; Gibson, A, 1998; Gibson, A, 2000; Gibson, A M, 1998; Thomas, D, 1998;

 

Moel y Gaer Rhosesmor hillfort, timber circle, Flintshire

7 posts set in a small circle 7.4m diameter and surrounding a central pit - possibly a grave but no body or grave goods were found when excavated. Located within hillfort

Excavation Guilbert 1973ff

Gibson, A, 1998; Guilbert, G, 1973; Guilbert, G C, 1975;

 

Mynydd Troed long cairn, Talgarth, Powys

Chambered cairn Minor excavation 1968 by Crampton and Webley showed revetment and yielded some neolithic sherds. Pollen site  (CPAT SMR PRN 638)

Excavation Crampton, C B & Webley, D / 1968

Caseldine, A, 1990; Crampton, C B & Webley, D, 1968; Crawford, O G S, 1925; Daniel, G E, 1950; Hankinson, R, Jones, N W, Dorling, P & Thomas, D, 1998; Nash, G, 1997; RCAHMW, 1997;

 

Penywyrlod long Cairn, Talgarth, Powys

Chambered long cairn Excavation by Savory on north-east part in 1972. Severn Cotswold type with three lateral chambers on north east (remainder of cairn unexplored). (CPAT SMR PRN 568)

Excavation Morgan, W & Marshall, G / 1921-22

Excavation Savory, H N / 1972

Survey CPAT / 1991

Aldhouse-Green, S, 1996; Brecon Beacons National Park, 1996; Britnell, B, 1991; Britnell, W J, 1992; Britnell, W J & Savory, H N, 1984; Nash, G, 1997; RCAHMW, 1997; Savory, H N, 1973;

 

Penywyrlod long cairn, Llanigon, Powys

Long cairn Partial excavation of 1921-22 by Morgan and Marshall (CPAT SMR PRN 1062)

 

Excavation Morgan & Marshall / 1921-22

Daniel, G E, 1950; Grimes, W F, 1936; Grimes, W F, 1951; Morgan, W E T & Marshall, G, 1921; RCAHMW, 1997; Vulliamy, C E, 1922; Wheeler, R E M, 1925;

 

Pipton long cairn, Bronllys, Powys

Chambered long cairn now some Part excavated 1950. Two lateral chambers and dummy portal at north. At least five individuals plus some neolithic pottery. (CPAT SMR PRN 511)

Excavation Savory, H N / 1950

Grimes, W F, 1951; Nash, G, 1997; RCAHMW, 1997; Savory, H N, 1952; Savory, H N, 1957;

 

Sarn y Bryn Caled hengiform, Welshpool, Powys

Neolithic hengiform open to north-west and with two postholes flanking entrance.Peterborough pottery and cremations from ditch (CPAT SMR PRN 4930)

Excavation CPAT / 1990

Gibson, A, 1991; Gibson, A, 1992; Gibson, A, 1992; Gibson, A, 1994; Gibson, A, 1995; Gibson, A M, 1993; Gibson, A M, 1998; Thomas, D, 1998;

 

 

Sarn y Bryn Caled Ring Ditch, excavation 1991, Welshpool, Powys

Late Neolithic hengiform open to north-west and with two postholes flanking entrance. Peterborough pottery and cremations from ditch (CPAT SMR PRN 34375)

Excavation CPAT / 1991

Gibson, A, 1991; Gibson, A, 1992; Gibson, A, 1992; Gibson, A, 1994; Gibson, A M, 1993

 

Sarn y Bryn Caled timber circle, Welshpool, Powys

Pit circle c15m diameter with 20 pits visible around a central pit c4m across. Shown to be Neolithic timber ccircle by excavation 1990/91.Central pit with primary cremation with four flint arrowheads. Secondary cremation with food vessel. Peterborough pottery found in

vicinity. C14 dates Thermoluminescence dating. (CPAT SMR PRN 3994)

Excavation CPAT / 1990-91

Aldhouse-Green, S, 1996; De Jong, J & Wevers, H, 1994; Geophysical Surveys, 1989; Gibson, A, 1991; Gibson, A, 1991; Gibson, A, 1992; Gibson, A, 1992; Gibson, A, 1992; Gibson, A, 1992; Gibson, A, 1992; Gibson, A, 1992; Gibson, A, 1993; Gibson, A, 1994; Gibson, A, 1994; Gibson, A, 1995; Gibson, A, 1998; Gibson, A, 1999; Gibson, A M, 1993; Gibson, A M, 1993; Gibson, A M, 1998; Linnard, W, 2000; St Joseph, J K, 1980; Thomas, D, 1998;

 

Trelystan Round Barrows (Neolithic burial), Trewern, Powys

Late Neolithic pit grave probably originally containing wooden coffin. Contained one cremation and remains of one possible inhumation. Beneath barrow. (CPAT SMR PRN 50641)

Excavation CPAT / 1979

Britnell, W, 1982; Gibson, A M, 1998;

 

Ty Isaf long cairn, Talgarth, Powys

Chambered long cairn. Excavated in 1938. The cairn has a false portal and two lateral chambers, a gallery grave inside a rotunda and a further chamber at the south end. Finds included Neolithic and Beaker pottery with remains of at least 33 people. (CPAT SMR PRN 639)

Excavation Grimes, W F / 1938

Cambrian Archaeological Association, 1936; Corcoran, J X W P, 1969; Cowley, L F, 1939; Crawford, O G S, 1925; Daniel, G E, 1950; Grimes, W F, 1939; Grimes, W F, 1939; Nash, G, 1997; RCAHMW, 1997; Webley, D P, 1969;

 

Walton Green cursus, Old Radnor, Powys

Cursus monument. 3 trenches excavated through the ditches (CPAT SMR PRN 5134)

Excavation CPAT / 1998

Gibson, A, 1999; Gibson, A, 1999; Gibson, A, 2000; Gibson, A, 2000; Musson, C R, 1980;

 

Walton palisaded enclosure, Old Radnor, Powys

Curvilinear pit alignment - part of ovoid pallisaded enclosure (CPAT SMR PRN 4255)

Geophysics Stratascan / 1995(08/12/95) -

Excavation CPAT / 1998

Dempsey, J, 1998; Gibson, A, 1998; Gibson, A, 2000; Gibson, A, 2000; Gibson, A M & Jones, N W, 1998; St Joseph, J K, 1980; Stratascan, 1995;

 

Welshpool cursus, Powys

Cursus monument. Fragmented and oriented NW-SE. C14 dates.(CPAT SMR PRN 3482)

Excavation CPAT / 1991

Cadw, 1997; Gibson, A, 1991; Gibson, A, 1992; Gibson, A, 1994; Gibson, A, 1995; Gibson, A, 1999; Gibson, A, 1999; Gibson, A M, 1993; Gibson, A M, 1998; St Joseph, J K, 1980; Thomas, D, 1998;