CPAT logo
Back Home
Contents
A Research Framework for the Archaeology of Wales

A Research Framework for the Archaeology of Wales

 

East and North East Wales Archaeological Resource Audit

 

Iron Age - key sites

 


Agriculture and Subsistence

New Pieces Field System, Bausley with Criggion, Powys

Series of rectangular fields sited between hillforts of The Breiddin and New Pieces 

Excavation O'Neil, B H St J / 1936

Collens, J, 1988; Musson, C R, 1977; O'Neil, B H St J, 1937;

 

 

Defence

Aberllynfi Gaer hillfort, Gwernyfed, Powys

Hillfort apparently overlying Neolithic settlement and with Romano-British activity. Part excavated

Excavation Conway Lloyd and Savory / 1951

 

Breiddin hillfort, Bausley with Criggion, Powys

Large multivallate hillfort with two and three ramparts on south-east. Significant excavation 1933-35 and 1969-75 revealing possible mesolithic, late neolithic, early bronze age, iron age, late Roman and possible Early Medieval activity. Round houses. Wooden finds. Enviromental evidence C14 dates. (CPAT SMR PRN 1254)

Excavation O'Neil, B H St J / 1933-35

Excavation CPAT / 1969-75

Caseldine, A, 1990; Collens, J, 1988; Davies, J, 1999; Forde-Johnston, J, 1962; Gent, H, 1983; Gibson, A, 1995; Hughes, G, 1994; Leonard, J, Preshous, D, Roberts, M, Smyth, J & Train, C, 2000; Moore, J, 1990; Musson, C R, 1970; Musson, C R, 1971; Musson, C R, 1972; Musson, C R, 1974; Musson, C R, 1976; Musson, C R, 1984; Musson, C R, 1991; Musson, C R, Smith, A G & Girling, M, 1977; O'Neil, B H St J, 1973; Silvester, R J & Brassil, K S, 1991; Smith, A G & Green, C A, 1991;

 

Bryn Euryn Camp, Rhos-on-sea, Conwy

Hillfort with early medieval occupation

Excavation CPAT / 1989

Excavation GAT / 1997

Cadw, 1997; Condry, W M, 1981; Davies, E, 1929; Longley, D & Laing, L, 1997; RCAHM, 1914; Tucker, N, 1966;

 

Caer Caradog hillfort, Llanfihangel Glyn Myfyr, Conwy

Excavated univallate contour hillfort (CPAT SMR PRN 100690)

Excavation Smith, J A & Livens, R G / 1963-64

Burnham, H, 1995; Cadw, 1997; Davies, E, 1929; Lewis, S, 1842; Lhuyd, E, 1699; Livens, R G, 1963; Livens, R G, 1964; Livens, R G, 1964; Lloyd, J Y W, 1878; Pugh, E D, 1816; RCAHM, 1914; Smith, J A & Livens, R G, 1991;

 

Caer Estyn hillfort, Hope, Flintshire

Hillfort ocupying summit of long hill, partially bivallate on north side, univallate for the rest of the circuit. (CPAT SMR PRN 101279)

Excavation CPAT / 1984

Davies, E, 1929; Fox, C, 1928; Fox, C, 1955; Pennant, T, 1810; RCAHM, 1914; Silvester, R J & Brassil, K S, 1991;

 

Coed y Gaer Hillfort, Llanfihangel Cwmdu with Bwlch and Cathedine, Powys

Univallate hillfort. Partly excavated. Roman re-occupation (CPAT SMR PRN 660)

Excavation Cardiff University / 1998 Pasture Woodland

Geophysics Cardiff University / 1998 Pasture Woodland

Fenton, R, 1917; Hogg, A H A, 1979; Jones, T & Bailey, J R, 1911; Lane, A, Macdonald, P & Young, T, 1998; RCAHMW, 1986; Savory, H N, 1950; Savory, H N, 1955;

 

Craig Rhiwarth Hillfort, Llangynog, Powys

Exceptionally large univallate drystone ramparted hillfort At least 170 hut sites apparent in interior (some orginally noted as ring cairns.) (CPAT SMR PRN 1465)

Excavation Sayce, R U / 1937

Survey CPAT / 1978

Burnham, H, 1995; Hemp, W J, 1943; Hogg, A H A, 1965; Jerman, H N, 1938; RCAHM, 1911; Richards, R, 1938; Robinson, G E, 1880; Roe & Crew, 1975; Roe & Crew, 1977; Roe, D, 1976; Sayce, R U, 1938; Silvester, R J, 1992; Wren, W J, 1968;

 

Dinorben hillfort, Abergele, Conwy

Promontory fort of 2ha. Guard chambers. Hut platforms Excavation prior to destruction by quarrying. C14 dates (CPAT SMR PRN 102000)

Excavation Gardner, W / 1912-22

Excavation Savory, H N / 1965-9

Excavation CPAT / 1983

Alcock, L, 1963; Brassil, K S,; Brassil, K S, 1983; Brassil, K S, 1983; Brassil, K S, 1984; Brassil, K S, 1984; Cadw, 1997; Davies, J, 1999; Davies, W, 1982; Fenton, R, 1917; Gardner, W, 1912; Gardner, W, 1912; Gardner, W, 1913; Gardner, W, 1913; Gardner, W, 1915; Gardner, W, 1920; Gardner, W, 1921; Gardner, W, 1923; Gardner, W, 1923; Gardner, W, 1926; Gardner, W, 1927; Gardner, W, 1947; Guilbert, G, 1979; Guilbert, G, 1981; Guilbert, G C, 1977; Guilbert, G C, 1978; Guilbert, G C, 1979; Guilbert, G C, 1979; Guilbert, G C, 1979; Guilbert, G C, 1979; Guilbert, G C, 1980; Guilbert, G C, 1981; Hughes, G, 1994; Lhuyd, E, 1699; Megaw, J V S, Megaw, M R & Trett, R, 1992; Pennant, T, 1883; RCAHM, 1914; Savory, H N, 1957; Savory, H N, 1957; Savory, H N, 1958; Savory, H N, 1959; Savory, H N, 1961; Savory, H N, 1965; Savory, H N, 1967; Savory, H N, 1969; Savory, H N, 1970; Savory, H N, 1971; Savory, H N, 1971; Savory, H N, 1976; Savory, H N, 1976; Savory, H N, 1980; Silvester, R J & Brassil, K S, 1991; Unknown, 1949;

 

Ffridd Faldwyn Hillfort, Montgomery, Powys

Hillfort overlying possible Neolithic settlement. At least three structural phases of hillfort. Double palisaded enclosure. No bank or ditch. Entrance inturned. Double timber-laced earth ramparts. On line of earlier palisade. Possibility of one build. Inturned entrance at south. Stone revetted double rampart adding further 3.6 hectares to north-west of ealier enclosure. Complex entrance with outworks at south-west. Simple entrance to north-east. Hillfort possibly abandoned after fire. (CPAT SMR PRN 168)

Excavation O'Neil, B H St J / 1937-39

Britnell, W J, Martin, C H R & Hankinson, R, 2000; Burnham, H, 1995; Collens, J, 1988; Davies, J, 1999; Gardner, W, 1932; Gibson, A, 1992; Guilbert, G C, 1975; Higham, R & Barker, P, 2000; Hogg, A H A, 1965; Hogg, A H A, 1979; Kenyon, 1956; Leonard, J, Preshous, D, Roberts, M, Smyth, J & Train, C, 2000; O'Neil, B H St J, 1942; RCAHM, 1911; Silvester, R J, 1992; Spurgeon, C J, 1972; Thomas, D, 1998;

 

Llanymynech hillfort (Iron Age), Carreghofa, Powys

57 hectare hilltop enclosure. Salvage excavations Iron Age copper metal working, stone rampart, a ditch and metal-working debris. C14 dates Peat sampling from bog interior - late glacial (10270100 BP [CAR-1354] to Iron Age (230070 BP[CAR-1353] indicating considerable palaeoenvironmental potential Palynological and geochemical investigations in appears to indicate early mining activities. Iron Age burial. C14 dates (CPAT SMR PRN 50650)

Excavation CPAT / 1981

Excavation Jones, G D B / 1994

Evaluation CPAT / 1995

Evaluation CPAT / 1999

Watching brief CPAT / 1999

Watching brief CPAT / 1999

Watching brief CPAT / 2000

Watching brief CPAT / 2000

Barnwell, E L, 1870; Burnham, B C, 1995; Forde-Johnston, J, 1976; Fox, C & Hemp, W J, 1926; Hogg, A H A, 1979; Jones, B, 1988; Leonard, J, Preshous, D, Roberts, M, Smyth, J & Train, C, 2000; Martin, C, 1992; Moore, J, 1990; Moore, J, 1992; Musson, C R, 1981; Musson, C R & Northover, J P, 1989; Owen, W G, 1999; Owen, W G, 1999; Owen, W G, 1999; Owen, W G, 2000; Rogers, 1957; Silvester, R J, 1992;

 

Llwyn Bryn Dinas Hillfort, Llangedwyn, Powys

Univallate rubble rampart.  Bronze and iron working evidence from behind ramparts C14 dates (CPAT SMR PRN 101065)

Excavation CPAT / 1954ff

Excavation CPAT / 1983

Davies, E, 1929; Musson, C R, 1983; Musson, C R, 1983; Musson, C R, 1983; Musson, C R, Britnell, W J, Northover, J P, & Salter C, 1992; RCAHM, 1914;

 

Moel Hiraddug hillfort, Dyserth, Denbighshire

Roughly oval enclosure of 10 hectares. Circular and four-post structures excavated in the interior. Two IA inhumations C14 dates. (CPAT SMR PRN 102057)

Excavation Bevan Evans / 1960

Excavation CPAT / 1979-80

Bevan-Evans, M, 1961; Bevan-Evans, M, 1964; Bevan-Evans, M, 1964; Bevan-Evans, M, 1966; Brassil, K S, 1979; Brassil, K S, 1980; Brassil, K S, 1982; Brassil, K S, Guilbert, G C, Livens, R G, Stead, W H, & Bevan-Evans, M, 1982; Burnham, H, 1995; Davies, E, 1949; Davies, J L, 1970; Davies, J L, 1970; Davies, J L, 1971; Davies, J L, 1972; Davies, J L & Bevan-Evans, M, 1969; Davis, C, 1999; Edwards, I, 1970; Forde Johnston, J, 1976; Gage, M A, 1884; Gent, H, 1983; Grimes, W F, 1951; Guilbert, G C, 1977; Guilbert, G C, 1979; Guilbert, G C, 1980; Guilbert, G C, 1982; Hemp, W J, 1928; Hogg, A H A, 1975; Houlder, C, 1961; Kendrick, T D & Hawkes, 1932; Leeds, E T, 1933; Murphy, K, 1992; Savory, H N, 1973; Savory, H N, 1976; Savory, H N, 1976; Stead, I M, 1968; Stead, W H, 1961; Varley, W J, 1964; Walls, L J & Bevan-Evans, M, 1968;

 

Moel y Gaer Rhosesmor hillfort, Iron Age, Halkyn, Flintshire

Multi-vallate hillfort. Inturned entrance. Major excavations in 1972 revealed evidence for timber-framed rampart enclosing firstly, stake-ring round houses and four posters followed by rectangular houses. C14 dates. (CPAT SMR PRN 100296)

Excavation Guilbert, G / 1973ff

Burnham, H, 1995; Davies, E, 1949; Edwards, T, 1832; Forde-Johnston, J, 1964; Gent, H, 1983; Guibert, G & Elliott, L, 1999; Guilbert, G, 1972; Guilbert, G, 1973; Guilbert, G, 1982; Guilbert, G C, 1973; Guilbert, G C, 1973; Guilbert, G C, 1974; Guilbert, G C, 1974; Guilbert, G C, 1975; Guilbert, G C, 1975; Guilbert, G C, 1975; Guilbert, G C, 1976; Guilbert, G C, 1976; Guilbert, G C, 1977; Guilbert, G C, 1978; Guilbert, G C, 1978; Guilbert, G C, 1979; Guilbert, G C, 1981; Lhuyd, E, 1909; Lloyd, E, 1695; Lloyd, G, 1955; Moore, D, 2000; Muir, R, 2000; Pennant, T, 1883; RCAHM, 1912; Savory, H N, 1976; Savory, H N, 1980; Stanford, S C, 1980; Unknown, 1923;

 

Twyn Llechfaen Hillfort, Llanfrynach, Powys

Excavated hillfort. Excavation revealed hut floors near the centre and the entrance together with Iron Age

Pottery dating to C3rd/4th BC, slingstones, animal bones (CPAT SMR PRN 620)

Excavation Savory, H N / 1959

Hogg, A H A, 1979; Hogg, A H A, 1982; RCAHMW, 1986; Savory, H N, 1961; Savory, H N, 1971;

 

 

Domestic

Caersws Causewayed Enclosure, Caersws, Powys

Possible circular enclosure comprising a 200m length of single bank and external ditch both being interrupted by at least three causeways Strongly resembles a Neolithic causewayed enclosure though 1991 trial excavations produced Iron Age C14 date from waterlogged wood. Environmental samples.

Excavation CPAT / 1991

Geophysics Stratascan / 1992

Barker, P A, 1993; Caseldine, A, 1993; Jones, N, 1993; Jones, N W, 1991; Jones, N W, 1992; Jones, N W, 1993;

 

Collfryn enclosure, Llansantffraid, Powys

Four ditched enclosure Excavation revealed Iron Age round houses and four-post buildings C14 dates. (CPAT SMR PRN 50217)

Excavation CPAT / 1980-82(/ /)

Britnell, W, 1980; Britnell, W, 1989; Grew, 1981;

 

Four Crosses Barrow Cemetery, site 2 (Iron age), Llandysilio, Powys

Iron Age hearth set on edge of barrow (CPAT SMR PRN 50526)

Excavation CPAT / 1984 Arable Pasture

Warrilow, W, Owen, G & Britnell, W, 1986;

 

Mount Pleasant enclosure, Llandyssil, Powys

Double-ditched enclosure.  Excavation identified rampart details and possible four post structure C14 dates. (CPAT SMR PRN 7500)

Excavation CPAT / 1994

Thomas, D, 1994;

 

Prestatyn, Melyd Avenue settlement (Iron Age), Prestatyn, Denbighshire

Excavations May-September 1985 located round house with porched entrance and multi-phased drainage gully. Possible animal pen. Various other working areas and infant burial. C14 date (CPAT SMR PRN 102199)

Excavation CPAT / 1984

Blockley, K, 1986; Blockley, K, 1986; Blockley, K, 1989; Thomas, D, 1992;