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A Research Framework for the Archaeology of Wales

A Research Framework for the Archaeology of Wales

 

East and North East Wales Archaeological Resource Audit

 

Roman - key sites

 


Agriculture and Subsistence

Plas Coch Roman settlement , Rhosddu , Wrexham

Remains of a Roman farmstead found during excavations in 1994 and 1996. Pottery dated from 1st/2nd century to 3rd/4th century. Probable civilian settlement dependent on agriculture (CPAT SMR PRN 13092)

Excavation CPAT / 1994(/ /) -

Excavation Giffords / 1996(/ /) -

Burnham, B C , 1995 ; Burnham, B C , 1996 ; Gifford and Partners , 1998 ; Grenter, S, Jones, N & Slater, B , 1994 ; Grenter, S, Jones, N & Slater, B , 1995 ; Wait, G A , 1996 ;

 

 

Civil

Caerau Fort, vicus , Treflys , Powys

Trial excavacation in vicus revealed Roman road, building platforms with well-defined with compacted floors (CPAT SMR PRN 5891)

Excavation CPAT / 1990(/ /) -

Assessment CPAT / 2000(/ /) -

 

Caersws Vicus , Caersws , Powys

1km square vicus surrounding Roman fort Caersws II. Mostly under modern settlement. Numerours excavations (see below under Domestic).(CPAT SMR PRN 5869)

Excavation CPAT / 1991(/ /) -

Evaluation CPAT / 1993(/ /) -

Excavation CPAT / 1993(29/03/93) -

Watching brief CPAT / 1995(14/08/95) -

Britnell, J E , 1985 ; Burnham, H , 1995 ; Frere, S S , 1991 ; Gibson, A M & Jones, N W , 1990 ; Jones, N , 1993 ; Jones, N W , 1990 ; Jones, N W , 1991 ; Jones, N W , 1991 ; Jones, N W , 1993 ; Jones, N W , 1996 ; Owen, W , 1993 ; Owen, W G , 1993 ;

 

Castell Collen Vicus , Llanyre , Powys

Vicus for Castell Collen fort, areas of laid metalling and clay 'floors' were revealed after the felling of trees in the gale of 1987. Geophysical survey and a metal-detector survey have produced further evidence. Large number of coins and other objects relating to metal working, religious activities and stone-masonry (CPAT SMR PRN 39814)

Survey Metal detector / 1996(/ /) -

Geophysics Stratascan / 1997(01/01/97) - Pasture

Assessment CPAT / 2000(/ /) -

Britnell, J E, Cool, H E M, Davies, J L, Manning, W H & Walters, M J , 1999 ; Jones, N W & Owen, W J , 2000 ;

 

Forden Gaer fort, vicus , Forden with Leighton and Trelystan , Powys

Vicus c150m south of fort (PRN 162). Stone footings with clay floor with pit 1m diameter by 1.5m deep recorded by excavation. Also possible iron working. Suggested undeveloped vicus, expanding in later half of 2nd century and reducing again after early 3rd century (CPAT SMR PRN 4872)

Excavation Unknown / 1975(/ /) -

Excavation CPAT / 1987(/ /) -

Blockley, K, Owen, G & Owen, W , 1990 ; Britnell, W J, Martin, C H R & Hankinson, R , 2000 ; Conrell, J , 1975 ; Crew, P , 1980 ; Goodburn, R , 1976 ;

 

 

Defence

Abertanat Roman Camp , Carreghofa , Powys

Temporary camp presumed to be siege work to Llanymynech Hillfort. Gate box rampart and titulum.  Gateway reconstsructed 1991. (CPAT SMR PRN 17492)

Excavation Jones, G D B / 1984(/ /) -

Frere, S S , 1988 ; Frere, S S , 1989 ; Frere, S S , 1991 ; Frere, S S , 1992 ; Green, H S , 1981 ; Green, H S et al , 1981 ; Jones, G B D , 1991 ; Jones, G D B , 1987 ;

 

Brecon Gaer fort , Yscir , Powys

Flavian earth fort with stone Antonine Internal buildings

(CPAT SMR PRN 598)

Excavation Wheeler, R E M / 1926(/ /) -

Watching brief CPAT / 1997(/ /) - Pasture

Burnham, B C , 1994 ; Burnham, H , 1995 ; Casey, P J , 1970 ; Craster, O E , 1954 ; Davies, J , 1999 ; Dorling, P , 1990 ; Fenton, R , 1917 ; Frere, S S , 1991 ; Jones, N , 1993 ; Parry, E G , 1985 ; Rivet, A L F & Smith, C , 1979 ; Silvester, R J & Dorling, P J , 1993 ; Smith, P , 1990 ; Wheeler, R E M , 1926 ;

 

Caerau Fort , Treflys , Powys

Two period Roman fort with superimposed motte. Internal timber buildings (CPAT SMR PRN 50469)

Excavation Jones, G D B & Birley, A / 1965(/ /) -

Jarrett, M G , 1969 ; Jones & Thompson , 1958 ; Jones, G D B & Birley, A R , 1965 ;

 

Caersws Fort I (Llwynybrain) , Powys

Large early fort reduced to cropmarks. Field walking and evaluation Pottery finds (CPAT SMR PRN 1575)

Survey CPAT / 1986(01/06/96) -

Evaluation CPAT / 1996(01/06/96) -

Evaluation CPAT / 1996(01/06/96) -

Brassil, K , 1987 ; Dawson, M L , 1983 ; Jarrett, M G , 1969 ; Jones, N W , 1993 ; St Joseph, J K , 1958 ; St Joseph, J K , 1969 ;

 

Caersws Fort II , Powys

Roman fort.  Numerous excavations from 1909 to 1960s. Three main building phases identified from pre-Flavian to Antonine periods. Sandstone ramparts (CPAT SMR PRN 772)

Brassil, K , 1987 ; Burnham, B C , 1993 ; Burnham, H , 1995 ; Cadw , 1997 ; Cadw , 1997 ; Daniels, C M, Jones, G D B & Putnam, W G , 1966 ; Daniels, C M, Jones, G D B & Putnam, W G , 1968 ; Daniels, C M, Jones, G D B & Putnam, W G , 1970 ; Davies Pryce, T , 1931 ; Fenton, R , 1806 ; Fenton, R , 1917 ; Frere, S S , 1992 ; Jarrett, M G , 1969 ; Jones, G D B , 1962 ; Jones, G D B et al , 1966 ; Jones, G D B et al , 1967 ; Jones, G D B et al , 1968 ; Jones, N W , 1993 ; Silvester, R J , 1992 ; Stephens, G R , 1986 ;

 

Castell Collen Fort , Llanyre , Powys

Roman auxiliary fort originally built with earthen rampart and ditch covering about 1.8ha but subsequently reduced around AD140: the walls, gates and other structures then being rebuilt in stone. Two main excavations. (CPAT SMR PRN 1159)

Excavation Evelyn White / 1911-13(/ /) -

Excavation Evelyn-White, H G / 1911-13(/ /) -

Excavation Alcock, L / 1954-57(/ /) -

Survey Metal detector / 1996(/ /) -

Survey Stratascan / 1997(01/01/97) - Pasture

Alcock, L , 1954 ; Alcock, L , 1955 ; Alcock, L , 1956 ; Alcock, L , 1957 ; Alcock, L , 1964 ; Birley, E , 1936 ; Boon, G C , 1973 ; Britnell, J E, Cool, H E M, Davies, J L, Manning, W H & Walters, M J , 1999 ; Burnham, H , 1995 ; Collingwood, R G & Wright, R P , 1965 ; Evans , 1956 ; Evelyn-White, H G , 1914 ; Gregory, D , 1994 ; Haverfield, F , 1908 ; Jarrett, M G , 1969 ; Leonard, J, Preshous, D, Roberts, M, Smyth, J & Train, C , 2000 ; Lewis, H , 1912 ; Newman, C W , 1981 ; Silvester, R J , 1994 ; Stratascan , 1997 ; Thomas, R W , 1911 ;

 

Cefn Perfedd marching camp , Ystradfellte , Powys

Roman marching camp Turf rampart on all sides. Section cut through defences during 1964 by G B D Jones. Pollen site (CPAT SMR PRN 826)

Excavation Jones, G D B / 1964(/ /) -

Caseldine, A , 1990 ; Crampton, C B & Webley, D P , 1964 ; Jones, G D B , 1965 ; St Joseph, J K , 1958 ; Thomas, D , 1998 ;

 

Clawdd Coch Marching camp, Carreghofa , Powys

Roman marching camp excavated by Jones (CPAT SMR PRN 4598)

Excavation Jones, G D B / 1991(/ /) -

Burnham, B C , 1993 ; Frere, S S , 1992 ; Jones, G D B , 1992 ;

 

Clawdd Coch Roman Fort , Carreghofa , Powys

Roman fort with timber box rampart. Field ovens identified by excavation and subsequent geophysics (CPAT SMR PRN 21)

Excavation Jones, G D B / 1991(/ /) -

Geophysics Jones, G D B / 1993(/ /) -

Excavation Jones, G D B / 1994(/ /) 

Burnham, B C , 1993 ; Burnham, B C , 1994 ; Burnham, B C , 1995 ; Frere, S S , 1992 ; Gregory, R A , 1992 ; Jones, G D B , 1992 ; RCAHM , 1911 ;

 

Clyro Fort , Powys

Roman fort with timber revetted box rampart and rock cut ditch - pre Flavian.

Excavation Jarrett, M G / 1964(/ /) -

Desk-top Assessment Border Archaeology / 1999(/ /) -

Davies, J , 1999 ; Frere, S S , 1967 ; Frere, S S & Joseph, J K St , 1974 ; Gregory, D , 1994 ; Jarrett, M G , 1964 ; Jarrett, M G , 1968 ; Jarrett, M G , 1969 ; Nash, G , 1999 ; St Joseph, J K , 1958 ;

 

Colwyn Castle, Roman Fort , Glascwm , Powys

Roman fort indentifed reoccupied by motte and bailey. Attested by trial excavations (CPAT SMR PRN 50273)

Excavation Spurgeon, C J & Davies / 1975(/ /) -

Frere, S S, Hassall, M W C & Tomlin, R S O , 1983 ; Haslam, R , 1979 ; Spurgeon, C J , 1974 ; Spurgeon, C J & Davies, J , 1975 ;

 

Dinorben hillfort, Abergele , Conwy

Hillfort re-occupation in the later Roman period. Evidence of non-defensive use of site during 3rd century AD. Occupation ceases in mid 4th century AD

Excavation Gardner, W / 1912-22

Excavation Savory, H N / 1965-9

Excavation CPAT / 1983

Alcock, L, 1963; Brassil, K S,; Brassil, K S, 1983; Brassil, K S, 1983; Brassil, K S, 1984; Brassil, K S, 1984; Cadw, 1997; Davies, J, 1999; Davies, W, 1982; Fenton, R, 1917; Gardner, W, 1912; Gardner, W, 1912; Gardner, W, 1913; Gardner, W, 1913; Gardner, W, 1915; Gardner, W, 1920; Gardner, W, 1921; Gardner, W, 1923; Gardner, W, 1923; Gardner, W, 1926; Gardner, W, 1927; Gardner, W, 1947; Guilbert, G, 1979; Guilbert, G, 1981; Guilbert, G C, 1977; Guilbert, G C, 1978; Guilbert, G C, 1979; Guilbert, G C, 1979; Guilbert, G C, 1979; Guilbert, G C, 1979; Guilbert, G C, 1980; Guilbert, G C, 1981; Hughes, G, 1994; Lhuyd, E, 1699; Megaw, J V S, Megaw, M R & Trett, R, 1992; Pennant, T, 1883; RCAHM, 1914; Savory, H N, 1957; Savory, H N, 1957; Savory, H N, 1958; Savory, H N, 1959; Savory, H N, 1961; Savory, H N, 1965; Savory, H N, 1967; Savory, H N, 1969; Savory, H N, 1970; Savory, H N, 1971; Savory, H N, 1971; Savory, H N, 1976; Savory, H N, 1976; Savory, H N, 1980; Silvester, R J & Brassil, K S, 1991; Unknown, 1949;

 

Forden Gaer, Roman fort , Powys

Roman fort possibly the Lavobrinta of the Ravenna Cosmography. Pre-Flavian and later remodelling. (CPAT SMR PRN 162)

Excavation Pryce / 1926

Excavation CPAT / 1987(/ /) -

Britnell, W J, Martin, C H R & Hankinson, R , 2000 ; Crew, P , 1975 ; Crew, P , 1975 ; Crew, P , 1980 ; Jarrett, M G , 1969 ; Leonard, J, Preshous, D, Roberts, M, Smyth, J & Train, C , 2000 ; Pryce, F N & Davies Pryce, T , 1927 ; Pryce, F N & Davies Pryce, T , 1929 ; Pryce, F N & Davies Pryce, T , 1930 ; Putnam, W G , 1962 ; Richmond & Crawford , 1949 ; Rivet, A L F & Smith, C , 1979 ; Silvester, R J , 1992 ; Simpson, G , 1962 ; Thomas, D , 1998 ;

 

Hindwell Fort , Old Radnor , Powys

Roman fort, Two-phase oven at rear of levelled rampart, Physical and geophysical survey carried out within fort as part of the SEPAH project discovered 2 phases surviving as earthworks. Interior details from geophysics (CPAT SMR PRN 315)

Excavation / 1779(/ /) -

Excavation Unknown / 1961(/ /) -

Excavation / 1976(/ /) -

Survey SEPAH / 1998(/ /) -

Gibson, A , 2000 ; Gibson, A M & Jones, N W , 1998 ; Gibson, A, Becker, H, Grogan, E, Jones, N & Masterson, B , 1999 ; Jarrett, M G , 1994 ; Jones, G D B , 1971 ; Leonard, J, Preshous, D, Roberts, M, Smyth, J & Train, C , 2000 ; Newman, C W , 1981 ; Pye, W R & Cain, R , 1976 ; Silvester, R J , 1994 ; St Joseph, J K , 1973 ;

 

Llansantffraid-ym-Mechain (Meliniog) Supply Base , Llansantffraid , Powys

Polygonal double ditched straight-sided enclosure. Shown to be probable Roman supply depot comparable to Llanfor (Bala) and Bradon Hill (Lentwardine). (CPAT SMR PRN 5117)

Excavation Jones, G D B / 1987(/ /) - Pasture

Cadw , 1997 ; Frere, S S , 1987 ; Frere, S S , 1988 ; Frere, S S , 1989 ; Jones, G D B , 1979 ; Jones, G D B , 1987 ; Jones, G D B & Reynolds, P , 1987 ;

 

New Pieces Enclosure , Bausley with Criggion , Powys

Small hillfort with Roman (and later) reoccupation  (CPAT SMR PRN 1259)

Excavation O'Neil, B H St J / 1936(/ /) -

Excavation Arnold, CJ & Huggett, J / 1996(/ /) -

Geophysics Arnold, CJ & Huggett, J / 1996

Arnold, C & Huggett, J , 1996 ; Collens, J , 1988 ; Forde-Johnston, J , 1962 ; Musson, C R , 1977 ; O'Neil, B H St J , 1937 ; Shropshire Star , 1997 ;

 

Pen y Gaer Fort , Llanfihangel Cwmdu with Bwlch and Cathedine , Powys

Roman fort, earth and timber construction followed two stone rebuilds. Mid 1st century (CPAT SMR PRN 658)

Excavation Crossley, D W / 1966(/ /) -

Evaluation DAT / 1995(/ /) -

Watching brief Makepeace, G A / 2000(/ /) -

Burnham, H , 1995 ; Cox, M & Webster, P , 1987 ; Crossley, D W , 1968 ; Fenton, R , 1806 ; Fenton, R , 1917 ; Jones, T , 1809 ; Makepeace, G A , 2000 ; Payne, H T , 1831 ; Randell, H J , 1950 ; Williams, G H , 1995 ;

 

 

Domestic

Arddleen enclosure , Llandrinio , Powys

Two ditched sub-rectangular cropmark enclosure - Roman. Pottery etc suggests 2nd to 3rd century AD date. C14 date Possibly two furnaces. (CPAT SMR PRN 4627)

Excavation CPAT / 1979(/ /) -

Excavation Porth y Waen / 1998(/ /) -

Excavation Porth y Waen / 1999(/ /) -

Britnell, W J & Musson, C R , 1984 ; Collens, J , 1988 ; Musson, C R , 1979 ; Silvester, R J , 1992 ; Whimster, R , 1989 ;

 

Breiddin hillfort, phase 6 occupation (Roman) , Bausley with Criggion , Powys

Finds, possible building foundations and levelling of rear of rampart. Possible re-occupation of hillfort in late 4th century AD, possible refortification. (CPAT SMR PRN 50058)

Excavation Musson, C R / 1969-75(/ /) -

Burnham, H , 1995 ; Musson, C R , 1970 ; Musson, C R , 1971 ; Musson, C R , 1972 ; Musson, C R , 1974 ; Musson, C R , 1991 ;

 

Broad Heath enclosure , Presteigne , Powys

Possible Roman villa seen as enclosure with internal buildings and second smaller rectangular enclosure to one side.. Pottery of late C2nd - C4th date, hearths suggesting small scale smithing. (CPAT SMR PRN 23280)

Excavation CPAT / 1997(/ /) -

Geophysics Stratascan / 1997(01/05/97) -

Assessment CPAT / 2000(/ /) -

Burnham, B C , 1998 ; Jones, N , 1997 ; Jones, N , 1999 ; Jones, N W & Owen, W J , 2000 ; Stratascan , 1997 ;

 

Capel Maelog Church (St Maelog), pits , Llandrindod Wells , Powys

Pits and ditches belonging to the late Roman/early Medieval underlying church (CPAT SMR PRN 17229)

Excavation CPAT / 1984

Assessment CPAT / 2000(/ /) -

Britnell, W J , 1986 ; Jones, N W & Owen, W J , 2000 ;

 

Caersws Vicus (CS 10), Old Primary School excavations 1985 , Powys

Complex of timber buildings outside south gate of fort. C1st and C2nd Bakery with retail shops (CPAT SMR PRN 6030)

Excavation CPAT / 1985-86(/ /) - Built over

Britnell, J E , 1985 ; Jones, N W , 1993 ;

 

Caersws Vicus (CS 14), Manthrig Lane excavations , Caersws , Powys

Building foundations with finds. Pits wells ovens etc. C1st - C2nd Severn Valley wares (CPAT SMR PRN 4000)

Excavation Connell / 1978(/ /) -

Jones, N W , 1993 ;

 

Ffrith Roman Site , Llanfynydd , Flintshire

Large quanitites of Roman finds and building material suggesting civilian settlement with XXth Legion connection. (CPAT SMR PRN 100020)

Davies, E , 1949 ; Earthworks , 1996 ; Fox, C , 1927 ; Frere, S S , 1988 ; Frere, S S , 1989 ; Frere, S S , 1991 ; Hughes, T M , 1893 ; Lewis, S , 1849 ; Palmer, A N , 1903 ; RCAHM , 1912 ; Rivet, A L F , 1964 ; Room, R E , 1968 ; THSC , 1908-9 ; Taylor, M C , 1922 ; Unknown , 1968 ; Unknown , 1972 ; Unknown , 1989 ;

 

Ffrith Roman Site, building B "High Street" , Llanfynydd , Flintshire

Hypocaust discovered in 1870 during the cutting of foundation trenches. (CPAT SMR PRN 100022)

Excavation / 1870(/ /) -

Davies, E , 1949 ; Palmer, A N , 1903 ; RCAHM , 1912

 

Ffrith Roman Site, building D "Arosfa" , Llanfynydd , Flintshire

Stone and wooden building foundations. 7 roomed building cAD120-180. Possibly villa or bath house. (CPAT SMR PRN 100024)

Excavation / 1910(/ /) -

Excavation / 1967-69(/ /) -

Blockley, K , 1989 ; Davies, E , 1949 ; RCAHM , 1912 ; Room, R E , 1968 ; Taylor, M C , 1922

 

Four Crosses Barrow Cemetery, Llandysilio , Powys

Romano British settlement attested by various pottery finds from post barrow contexts of large scale prehistoric cemetery excavations in 1980s (CPAT SMR PRN 50555)

Excavation CPAT / 1983-85(/ /) -

Warrilow, W, Owen, G & Britnell, W , 1986 ;

 

Flint, Pentre Farm Roman site , Flint , Flintshire

Early 2nd century timber villa building with partitioned courtyard, rebuilt in stone and the abandoned by the mid 3rd century. Associated with lead workings. (CPAT SMR PRN 100133)

Excavation O'Leary, T J / 1976-77(/ /) -

Excavation O'Leary, T J / 1981(/ /) -

Excavation CPAT / 1991(/ /) -

Excavation CPAT / 1991(/ /) -

Brassil, K S , 1981 ; CPAT , ; Davies, E , 1949 ; Frere, S S , 1992 ; Jones, G J , 1961 ; Jones, N , 1989 ; Jones, N W , 1991 ; Jones, N W & Brassil, K S , 1991 ; Leonard, J, Preshous, D, Roberts, M, Smyth, J & Train, C , 2000 ; Musson, C R , 1976 ; Musson, C R , 1977 ; Musson, C R , 1981 ; Musson, C R , 1981 ; Musson, C R , 1981 ; O'Leary, T J et al , 1976 ; O'Leary, T J, Blockley, K, & Musson, C R , 1989 ; Parry, R , 1991 ; Parry, R & Silvester, R J , 1991 ; Petch, J A , 1936 ; Petch, J A & Taylor, M V , 1924 ; Wheetman, M , 1986 ;

 

Maesderwen 'Roman Villa' , Llanfrynach , Powys

Roman bath house, mausoleum, possible villa and metal-working site. Excavation of 1783 revealed complex bath hiouse with at least 12 rooms with mosaic tile and "cement" floors (over hypocausts in two) including a warm bath, 2 cold baths with intermediate and connecting rooms. Finds indicate 3rd/4th century and possibly earlier occupation.  (CPAT SMR PRN 610)

Excavation Hay, C / 1783(/ /) -

Geophysics Stratascan / 1992(/ /) -

Evaluation CPAT / 1997(/ /) -

Evaluation CPAT / 1997(/ /) -

 

Ogof Yr Esgryn Cave , Llywel , Powys

Cave with large number of Romano-British finds. (CPAT SMR PRN 784)

Excavation Unknown / 1923-77(/ /) -

Branigan, K & Dearne, M J , 1992 ; D'Elboux, R H , 1924 ; Mason, E J , 1968 ; RCAHMW , 1997 ; Savory, H N , 1949 ; Savory, H N , 1971 ;

 

Prestatyn, Melyd Avenue settlement , Denbighshire

Area of Roman (and prehistoric settlement) including stone bath house revealed during 1934-7 excavations. Major excavations by CPAT 1984-5 revealed partially waterlogged deposits belong to Roman and Iron Age timber buildings. Bath house partially reconstructed (CPAT SMR PRN 102196)

Excavation Newstead, R / 1934-37(/ /) -

Excavation CPAT / 1980(/ /) -

Excavation CPAT / 1984-85(/ /) -

Excavation CPAT / 1992(/ /) -

Evaluation Earthworks / 1996(/ /) -

Barratt, J C, Kenworthy, J B & Stevenson, J B , 1973 ; Barratt, J C, Kenworthy, J B & Stevenson, J B , 1973 ; Blockley, K , 1984 ; Blockley, K , 1984 ; Blockley, K , 1985 ; Blockley, K , 1985 ; Blockley, K , 1986 ; Blockley, K , 1986 ; Blockley, K , 1989 ; Brassil, K S , 1980 ; Brassil, K S , 1980 ; Brassil, K S , 1980 ; Daniels, C M , 1970 ; Davies, E , 1949 ; English Heritage , 2001 ; Frere, S S, Hassall, M W C & Tomlin, R , 1985 ; Frere, S S, Hassall, M W C & Tomlin, R , 1985 ; Nash-Williams, V E , 1954 ; Newstead, R , 1936 ; Newstead, R , 1937 ; Newstead, R , 1937 ; Newstead, R , 1939 ; Newstead, R , 1939 ; Thomas, D , 1992 ;

 

 

Health and Welfare

Castell Collen Fort, bath house , Llanyre , Powys

Roman extra-mural bath-house to south offort. Hot rooms, large apodyterium and long latrine. Several structural phases apparent. (CPAT SMR PRN 6341)

Excavation Alcock, L / 1955-57(/ /) -

Alcock, L , 1957 ; Anon , 1958 ; McPeake, J , 1971 ; Newman, C W , 1981 ; Silvester, R J , 1994 ;

 

 

Industrial

Gwernyfed Bloomery , Gwernyfed , Powys

Four Romano-British bowl or dome furnaces excavated 1950. Site probably abandoned early 2nd century AD. Possibly sited on late Iron Age working site associated with Aberllynfi gaer (CPAT SMR PRN 520)

Excavation Conway Lloyd and Savory / 1950(/ /) -

Jones, N W & Owen, W J , 2000 ; Lloyd, J C & Savory, H N , 1958 ;

 

Holt Roman site , Holt , Wrexham

The works depot of the 20th Legion known as Bovium. Excavated by T A Acton between 1907-14: various structures including barracks, a bath house, kilns and finds. Major Roman tile works.

Excavation Acton,TT / 1907-14(/ /) -

Boon, G C , 1961 ; Davies, E , 1929 ; Davies, J , 1999 ; Frere, S S , 1967 ; Grimes, W F , 1930 ; Lynch, F , 1986 ; RCAHM , 1914 ; Rivet, A L F , 1964 ; Savory, H N , 1980 ; Stephens, G R , 1984 ; Ward, M , 1998 ; Ward, M , 1998 ;

 

Llanymynech Ogof Mine, Carreghofa , Powys

Roman mining augmenting natural cave, and overlain by series of later mines. Open pits outside the cave mouth were filled with "deads" after the extraction of the copper ore. Numerous Roman finds (including burials) (CPAT SMR PRN 19261)

Excavation Toms, G / 1969(/ /) -

Visit CPAT / 1978(21/11/78) -

Survey Bangor University / 1996(/ /) - Recreational

Adams, D R , 1970 ; Adams, D R , 1992 ; Barnwell, E L , 1870 ; Boon, G C , 1966 ; Cathrall, W , 1855 ; Davies, O , 1935 ; Fewtrell, J , 1878 ; Forrest, H E , 1937 ; Foster-Smith, J R , 1978 ; Green, M J , 1978 ; Hartshorne, C H , 1841 ; Haverfield, F , 1908 ; Haverfield, F , 1908 ; Leonard, J, Preshous, D, Roberts, M, Smyth, J & Train, C , 2000 ; Pearce, A J , 1992 ; Pennant, T , 1781 ; RCAHM , 1911 ; Savory, H N , 1966 ; Timberlake, S , 1996 ; Toms, G , 1969 ; Tyler, A , 1982 ; Tyler, A, Burgess, A & Richardson, J , 1999 ; Walters, M , 1993 ; Walters, M , 1993 ; Watkin, W T , 1879 ; Wright, T , 1888 ;

 

 

Religious, Ritual and Funerary

Forden Gaer, excavation 1987 site III , Forden with Leighton and Trelystan , Powys

Square double-ditched enclosure, possible a temenos, 100m across. (CPAT SMR PRN 17489)

Excavation CPAT / 1987(/ /) -

Blockley, K , 1987 ; Blockley, K, Owen, G & Owen, W , 1990 ; Britnell, W J, Martin, C H R & Hankinson, R , 2000 ;

 

Tre Owen Well , Newtown and Llanllwchaiarn , Powys

Well containg probale votive material (CPAT SMR PRN 4001)

Excavation Connel, J / 1977(/ /) -

CPAT , 1977 ; Hassall, M W C & Tomlin, R S O , 1978 ; Hassall, M W C & Tomlin, R S O , 1978 ;

 

Welshpool, Smithfield Burial , Welshpool , Powys

Roman burial deposit found when drain was laid in 1959 Numerous metal (and other - pottery, textiles, wood and glass) artefacts C2nd (Boon, G C 1961, 13-31). (CPAT SMR PRN 119)

Excavation Boon, G C / 1960(/ /) -

Boon, G C , 1961 ; Megaw, J V S, Megaw, M R & Trett, R , 1992 ; National Museum of Wales , 1968 ; Silvester, R J , 1992 ;