A Research Framework for the Archaeology of Wales

East and Northeast Wales – Early Prehistoric, key sites

22/12/2003

 

 

NEOLITHIC

 

Domestic

 

Breiddin hillfort, phase 1 occupation (Neolithic/Bronze Age), Bausley with Criggion, Powys

Late Neolithic/early Bronze Age pottery and flint scatter possibly associated with occupation floor under hillfort excavation

Excavation Musson /1969

Musson, C R, 1970; Musson, C R, 1971; Musson, C R, 1972; Musson, C R, 1974; Musson, C R, 1991;

 

Brenig 6: timber building, Llanrhaeadr-yng-nghinmeirch, Denbighshire

Possible circular timber building underlying Bronze Age kerbed cairn (CPAT SMR PRN 43175)

Excavation Lynch, F / 1973

Bradley, R, 2000; Lynch, F, 1993;

 

Collfryn enclosure (Neolithic phase), Llansantffraid, Powys

Evidence of earlier prehistoric activity was uncovered during excavations of the Iron Age enclosure in 1980-82. A small assemblage of Beaker pottery and flint work (CPAT SMR PRN 70911)

Excavation CPAT / 1980-82

Britnell, W, 1989;

 

Dyserth Castle, Neolithic site, Denbighshire

Neolithic features beneath Medieval Castle

Excavation 1914

Davies, E, 1949; Glenn, T A, 1915; Grimes, W F, 1951; Piggot, S & Grimes, W F, 1935; RCAHM, 1982;

 

Ffridd Faldwyn Hillfort, phase 1 (Neolithic), Montgomery, Powys

Probable Neolithic settlement beneath Iron Age hillfort. Attested by flint and pottery finds. (CPAT SMR PRN 50102)

Excavation O'Neil, B H St J / 1937-39

Arnold, C J, 1987; Britnell, W J, Martin, C H R & Hankinson, R, 2000; Burnham, H, 1995; Clough, T H McK & Cummins, W A, 1988; Gibson, A, 1995; Kenyon, 1956; O'Neil, B H St J, 1942;

 

Four Crosses Barrow Cemetery, site 2 (Neolithic), Llandysilio, Powys

Late Neolithic occupation attested in barrow excavation - finds and C14 dates (CPAT SMR PRN 50524)

Excavation CPAT / 1984

Warrilow, W, Owen, G & Britnell, W, 1986;

 

Gop Cave, Trelawnyd and Gwaenysgor, Flintshire

The rock shelter was excavated in 1886 and the cave in 1908. Finds show use from Palaeolithic to Neolithic.

Excavation Boyd Dawkins / 1886-1908

Boyd Dawkins, 1901; Boyd Dawkins, 1902; Boyd Dawkins, 1912; Daniel, G E, 1950; Davies, E, 1949; Glenn, T A, 1913; Glenn, T A, 1926; Glenn, T A & Piggot, S, 1935; Hughes, M J, 1912; Lynch, F, 1969; RCAHM, 1982; Stead, W H & Bridgewood, R, 1957; Stead, W H & Bridgewood, R, 1957; Valdemar, A E & Jones, R D, 1970;

 

Gwaenysgor Cave, Trelawnyd and Gwaenysgor, Flintshire

Cave with Neolithic occupation.

Excavation Jackson, J W / 1950-60

Valdemar, A E & Jones, R D, 1970;

 

Moel y Gaer Rhosesmor hillfort, Flintshire

Various Neolithic finds and a C14 date attest occupation beneath hillfort (CPAT SMR PRN 100293)

Excavation Guilbert, G / 1973ff

Davies, E, 1949; Gibson, A, 1995; Guilbert, G C, 1973; Guilbert, G C, 1974; Lloyd, G, 1955; RCAHM, 1912;

 

Nant-y-Graig/Brysgill caves, Llannefydd, Conwy

A series of nine caves of various sizes Exploration in 1871 found evidence of occupation probably of Neolithic date. (CPAT SMR PRN 19309)

Excavation Owen, H / 1946

Oldham, T, 1989;

 

Nant-y-fuach rock shelter, Dyserth, Denbighshire

Rock shelter excavated 1950 to 1957. Crouched inhumations with Neolithic finds (CPAT SMR PRN 102106)

Excavation Stead, W / 1950-7

Gibson, A, 1995; Longworth, I, 1958; Lynch, F, 1969; Stead, W, 1958; Trump, D, 1957; Valdemar, A E & Jones, R D, 1970;

 

Orchid Cave I, Llanferres, Denbighshire

Cave with excavated finds of human bones dated to Neolithic and C14 date (CPAT SMR PRN 34750)

Excavation Anon / 1970

Aldhouse-Green, S et al, 1996; Brassil, K S & Guilbert, G C, 1982; Guilbert, G, 1982;

 

Plas Heaton Cave, Henllan, Denbighshire

Cave excavated in the 1860s. Neolithic material (CPAT SMR PRN 100569)

Excavated ???? / 1860s

Davies, E, 1929; Davies, E, 1931; Dawkins, W B, 1874;

 

Rough Close enclosure, Old Radnor, Powys

Truncated single ditched enclosure. C14 dates (CPAT SMR PRN 50187)

Excavation CPAT / 1994

Gibson, A, 1994; Gibson, A, 1999; Gibson, A, 2000;

 

Sarn y Bryn Caled junction, excavation 1998-9, Welshpool, Powys

Excavation of two scatters of Neolithic pottery (over 100 sherds) and several flints (CPAT SMR PRN 70271)

Excavation CAP / 1998-9

Blockley, K, 1998; Blockley, K, 1999;

 

Trelystan Round Barrows (Neolithic settlement), Trewern, Powys

Neolithic settlement represented by stave-walled structures one associated with Grooved Ware sherds beneath barrow (CPAT SMR PRN 50642)

Excavation CPAT / 1979

Britnell, W, 1982; Gibson, A, 1996;

 

Ystrad Hynod barrow, pre-barrow occupation, Trefeglwys, Powys

Hearth and fire trench on buried ground surface beneath barrow (CPAT SMR PRN 50472)

Apsimon, A M, 1973;

 

Monument (by form)

 

Abercynafon waterlogged site I, Talybont-on-Usk, Powys

Accidental find by Forest Enterprise in 1994 of worked wood and tree trunks. Dendro dating indicated a structure dated to around 2700BC. Excavation in 1995 revealed horizontally arranged split tree trunks plus large quantities of eroded roundwood and splitwood debris including roundwood uprights. No clear structure identified. Analysis of the waterlogged deposits indicates the natural formation of a pond around which the structure(s) built.

Waterlogged seeds recorded in plant macrofossil samples include buttercup type, water crowfoot, water-starwort, blackberry, sedge and birch. Charcoal was also present (CPAT SMR PRN 23060)

Excavation CPAT / 1996

Caseldine, A, 1995; Earwood, C & Thomas, D, 1995; Hillam, J & Hall, C, 1998; Rees, S E, 1997; Thomas, D & Earwood, C, 1996;

 

Religious, Ritual and Funerary

 

Dyffryn Lane Barrow I, henge, Berriew, Powys

Henge defined by bank 40m diameter and 1m high with internal ditch 13m wide and 0.3m deep. Traces of outer bank 14m wide and 0.3m high on northwest side. Geophysical survey, survey (CPAT SMR PRN 50290)

Geophysics 1992

Survey 1992

Geophysical Surveys, 1992; Gibson, A M, 1998; Gibson, A M & Britnell, B, 1992; Moore-Colyer, R J, 1996;

 

Ffostyll long cairn I, Talgarth, Powys

Chambered long cairn Part excavated by Vulliamry 1921-23. Two, possibly three, lateral chambers with at least 10 individuals and possibly some Bronze Age pottery (CPAT SMR PRN 553)

Excavation Vulliamy, C E / 1921-23

Burnham, H, 1995; Grimes, W F, 1951; Nash, G, 1997; Powell, T G E, 1969; RCAHMW, 1997; Vulliamy, C E, 1921; Vulliamy, C E, 1923;

 

Ffostyll long cairn II, Talgarth, Powys

Chambered long cairn Part excavated by Vulliamy 1921-23. Gallery grave at northeast end with at least 9 individuals. (CPAT SMR PRN 552)

Excavation Vulliamy, C E / 1921-23

Nash, G, 1997; Powell, T G E, 1969; RCAHMW, 1997; Vulliamy, C E, 1921; Vulliamy, C E, 1923;

 

Four Crosses Barrow Cemetery, site 5 (Neolithic), Llandysilio, Powys

Neolithic elements of multi-period barrow. Grave goods and C14 dates (CPAT SMR PRN 50515)

Excavation CPAT / 1983

Warrilow, W, Owen, G & Britnell, W, 1986;

 

Four Crosses Barrow Cemetery, site 7 (Neolithic), Llandysilio, Powys

Neolithic / Beaker phase of multi-period barrow (CPAT SMR PRN 50553)

Excavation CPAT / 1984-85

Warrilow, W, Owen, G & Britnell, W, 1986;

 

Gop Cave (Neolithic), Trelawnyd and Gwaenysgor, Flintshire

Human skeletons from chamber in rock shelter. Sherds of decorated pottery possibly Peterborough type were found with the skeletons. Also Graig Llwyd axe found near cave entrance. (CPAT SMR PRN 102263)

Excavation Boyd Dawkins

Boyd Dawkins, 1901; Boyd Dawkins, 1902; Boyd Dawkins, 1912; CBA PETROLOGY, 1982; Daniel, G E, 1950; Davies, E, 1949; Gibson, A, 1995; Glenn, T A, 1913; Green, H S, 1980; Jackson, J W, 1913; Lynch, F, 1969; McInnes, I, 1968; Stead, W H & Bridgewood, R, 1957;

 

Gwernvale long cairn, Crickhowell, Powys

Chambered long cairn excavated 1977-78. The cairn overlies the settlement. C14 dates (CPAT SMR PRN 687)

Excavation CPAT / 1977-78

Britnell, W, 1980; Britnell, W J, 1977; Britnell, W J, 1977; Britnell, W J, 1978; Britnell, W J, 1979; Britnell, W J & Savory, H N, 1984; Burnham, H, 1995; Colt Hoare, R, 1803; Gibson, A, 1993; Gibson, A, 1995; Gibson, A & Kinnes, I, 1997; Jones, T, 1809; Nash, G, 1997; Olding, F, 2000; RCAHMW, 1997;

 

Hindwell II palisaded enclosure, Old Radnor, Powys

Elliptical palisaded enclosure identified by APs and tested by Geophysics and excavation. Comprises 1400 oak posts enclosing and area of 34 hectares - probably the largest late Neolithic enclosure in Britain (CPAT SMR PRN 19376)

Excavation CPAT / 1998

Geophysics SEPAH / 1998

Survey SEPAH / 1998

British Archaeology, 1996; Gibson, A, 1994; Gibson, A, 1995; Gibson, A, 1996; Gibson, A, 1997; Gibson, A, 1998; Gibson, A, 1998; Gibson, A, 1999; Gibson, A, 2000; Gibson, A, 2000; Gibson, A M & Jones, N W, 1998; Gibson, A, Becker, H, Grogan, E, Jones, N & Masterson, B, 1999;

 

Holywell Racecourse earth circle, Ysceifiog, Flintshire

Circular bank and ditch overlain by Offa's Dyke. Identified as possible henge Suggested that associated earthwork may be a cursus monument running up to join this earth circle from the south, rather than a section of Offa's Dyke as originally believed (CPAT SMR PRN 102385)

Excavation Fox / 1926

Excavation CPAT / 1996

Burnham, H, 1995; Clark, G, 1936; Davies, E, 1949; Fox, C, 1926; Gibson, A, 1999; Hemp, W J, 1923; Owen, W G, 1996;

 

Little Lodge long barrow, Gwernyfed, Powys

Chambered long barrow. Excavated by Vulliamy 1928-9.  (CPAT SMR PRN 512)

Excavation Vulliamy, C E / 1928-29

Daniel, G E, 1950; Grimes, W F, 1951; Nash, G, 1997; RCAHMW, 1997; Vulliamy, C E, 1929;

 

Lower Luggy long barrow, Berriew, Powys

Earthen long barrow identified from aerial photos and tested by excavation (CPAT SMR PRN 3968)

Excavation CPAT / 1994

Geophysics Armstrong, B / 1994

Gibson, A, 1994; Gibson, A, 1995; Gibson, A, 1995; Gibson, A, 1997; Gibson, A, 1998; Gibson, A, 2000; Gibson, A M, 1998; Thomas, D, 1998;

 

Moel y Gaer Rhosesmor hillfort, timber circle, Flintshire

7 posts set in a small circle 7.4m diameter and surrounding a central pit - possibly a grave but no body or grave goods were found when excavated. Located within hillfort

Excavation Guilbert 1973ff

Gibson, A, 1998; Guilbert, G, 1973; Guilbert, G C, 1975;

 

Mynydd Troed long cairn, Talgarth, Powys

Chambered cairn Minor excavation 1968 by Crampton and Webley showed revetment and yielded some Neolithic sherds. Pollen site  (CPAT SMR PRN 638)

Excavation Crampton, C B & Webley, D / 1968

Caseldine, A, 1990; Crampton, C B & Webley, D, 1968; Crawford, O G S, 1925; Daniel, G E, 1950; Hankinson, R, Jones, N W, Dorling, P & Thomas, D, 1998; Nash, G, 1997; RCAHMW, 1997;

 

Penywyrlod long Cairn, Talgarth, Powys

Chambered long cairn. Excavation by Savory on northeast part in 1972. Severn Cotswold type with three lateral chambers on northeast (remainder of cairn unexplored). (CPAT SMR PRN 568)

Excavation Morgan, W & Marshall, G / 1921-22

Excavation Savory, H N / 1972

Survey CPAT / 1991

Aldhouse-Green, S, 1996; Brecon Beacons National Park, 1996; Britnell, B, 1991; Britnell, W J, 1992; Britnell, W J & Savory, H N, 1984; Nash, G, 1997; RCAHMW, 1997; Savory, H N, 1973;

 

Penywyrlod long cairn, Llanigon, Powys

Long cairn Partial excavation of 1921-22 by Morgan and Marshall (CPAT SMR PRN 1062)

Excavation Morgan & Marshall / 1921-22

Daniel, G E, 1950; Grimes, W F, 1936; Grimes, W F, 1951; Morgan, W E T & Marshall, G, 1921; RCAHMW, 1997; Vulliamy, C E, 1922; Wheeler, R E M, 1925;

 

Pipton long cairn, Bronllys, Powys

Chambered long cairn now some Part excavated 1950. Two lateral chambers and dummy portal at north. At least five individuals plus some Neolithic pottery. (CPAT SMR PRN 511)

Excavation Savory, H N / 1950

Grimes, W F, 1951; Nash, G, 1997; RCAHMW, 1997; Savory, H N, 1952; Savory, H N, 1957;

 

Sarn y Bryn Caled hengiform, Welshpool, Powys

Neolithic hengiform open to northwest and with two postholes flanking entrance. Peterborough pottery and cremations from ditch (CPAT SMR PRN 4930)

Excavation CPAT / 1990

Gibson, A, 1991; Gibson, A, 1992; Gibson, A, 1992; Gibson, A, 1994; Gibson, A, 1995; Gibson, A M, 1993; Gibson, A M, 1998; Thomas, D, 1998;

 

Sarn y Bryn Caled Ring Ditch, excavation 1991, Welshpool, Powys

Late Neolithic hengiform open to northwest and with two postholes flanking entrance. Peterborough pottery and cremations from ditch (CPAT SMR PRN 34375)

Excavation CPAT / 1991

Gibson, A, 1991; Gibson, A, 1992; Gibson, A, 1992; Gibson, A, 1994; Gibson, A M, 1993

 

Sarn y Bryn Caled timber circle, Welshpool, Powys

Pit circle c15m diameter with 20 pits visible around a central pit c4m across. Shown to be Neolithic timber circle by excavation 1990/91.Central pit with primary cremation with four flint arrowheads. Secondary cremation with food vessel. Peterborough pottery found in

vicinity. C14 dates Thermoluminescence dating. (CPAT SMR PRN 3994)

Excavation CPAT / 1990-91

Aldhouse-Green, S, 1996; De Jong, J & Wevers, H, 1994; Geophysical Surveys, 1989; Gibson, A, 1991; Gibson, A, 1991; Gibson, A, 1992; Gibson, A, 1992; Gibson, A, 1992; Gibson, A, 1992; Gibson, A, 1992; Gibson, A, 1992; Gibson, A, 1993; Gibson, A, 1994; Gibson, A, 1994; Gibson, A, 1995; Gibson, A, 1998; Gibson, A, 1999; Gibson, A M, 1993; Gibson, A M, 1993; Gibson, A M, 1998; Linnard, W, 2000; St Joseph, J K, 1980; Thomas, D, 1998;

 

Trelystan Round Barrows (Neolithic burial), Trewern, Powys

Late Neolithic pit grave probably originally containing wooden coffin. Contained one cremation and remains of one possible inhumation. Beneath barrow. (CPAT SMR PRN 50641)

Excavation CPAT / 1979

Britnell, W, 1982; Gibson, A M, 1998;

 

Ty Isaf long cairn, Talgarth, Powys

Chambered long cairn. Excavated in 1938. The cairn has a false portal and two lateral chambers, a gallery grave inside a rotunda and a further chamber at the south end. Finds included Neolithic and Beaker pottery with remains of at least 33 people. (CPAT SMR PRN 639)

Excavation Grimes, W F / 1938

Cambrian Archaeological Association, 1936; Corcoran, J X W P, 1969; Cowley, L F, 1939; Crawford, O G S, 1925; Daniel, G E, 1950; Grimes, W F, 1939; Grimes, W F, 1939; Nash, G, 1997; RCAHMW, 1997; Webley, D P, 1969;

 

Walton Green cursus, Old Radnor, Powys

Cursus monument. 3 trenches excavated through the ditches (CPAT SMR PRN 5134)

Excavation CPAT / 1998

Gibson, A, 1999; Gibson, A, 1999; Gibson, A, 2000; Gibson, A, 2000; Musson, C R, 1980;

 

Walton palisaded enclosure, Old Radnor, Powys

Curvilinear pit alignment - part of ovoid-palisaded enclosure (CPAT SMR PRN 4255)

Geophysics Stratascan / 1995(08/12/95) -

Excavation CPAT / 1998

Dempsey, J, 1998; Gibson, A, 1998; Gibson, A, 2000; Gibson, A, 2000; Gibson, A M & Jones, N W, 1998; St Joseph, J K, 1980; Stratascan, 1995;

 

Welshpool cursus, Powys

Cursus monument. Fragmented and oriented NW-SE. C14 dates.(CPAT SMR PRN 3482)

Excavation CPAT / 1991

Cadw, 1997; Gibson, A, 1991; Gibson, A, 1992; Gibson, A, 1994; Gibson, A, 1995; Gibson, A, 1999; Gibson, A, 1999; Gibson, A M, 1993; Gibson, A M, 1998; St Joseph, J K, 1980; Thomas, D, 1998;

 

 

BRONZE AGE

 

Defence

 

Breiddin hillfort, phase 2 occupation (LBA), Bausley with Criggion, Powys

Late Bronze Age timber reinforced rampart (possibly re-built once) enclosing the hilltop. C14 dates Internal occupation. (CPAT SMR PRN 50054)

Excavation Musson / 1969-75

Musson, C R, 1970; Musson, C R, 1971; Musson, C R, 1972; Musson, C R, 1974; Musson, C R, 1991

 

Dinorben hillfort, Bronze Age site, Abergele, Conwy

Late Bronze Age palisaded enclosure (CPAT SMR PRN 102002)

Excavation Guilbert / 1978(/ /)

Savory, H N, 1971; Savory, H N, 1980; Unknown, 1949;

 

Domestic

 

Broad Heath enclosure, prehistoric occupation, Presteigne, Powys

A curving ditch containing MBA pottery beneath Broad Heath Roman enclosure, (CPAT SMR PRN 72366)

Excavation CPAT / 1997

Jones, N W & Owen, W J, 2000;

 

Carneddau cairn I, pre-cairn activity, Carno, Powys

Activity pre-dating the building of the cairn. Evidence for tree felling and burning (Gibson, A 1993, 34). (CPAT SMR PRN 50632)

Excavation CPAT / 1989

Gibson, A, 1993;

 

Glanfeinion round house, Llandinam, Powys

Middle Bronze Age roundhouse found during topsoil stripping in advance of gas pipeline. Excavation revealed a penannular gully 12m in diameter surrounding a ring of post-holes with a diameter of

c7m. Probable porch on southeast. C14 dates (CPAT SMR PRN 19453)

Excavation CPAT / 1993

Britnell, W J, Silvester, R J, Gibson, A, Caseldine, A E, Hunter, K L, Johnson, S, Hamilton-Dyer, S & Vince, A, 1997; Hankinson, R, 1994; Silvester, R J, 1994;

 

Llanymynech hillfort, Bronze Age occupation, Carreghofa, Powys

An evaluation in the interior of the hillfort produced important new evidence for Bronze Age occupation within the hillfort. The lithic assemblage demonstrates flint knapping taking place to produce a range of tools (CPAT SMR PRN 72152)

Evaluation CPAT / 1999

Owen, W G, 1999;

 

Nant Hall Road, Prestatyn, Denbighshire

Shell middens located in the wetland margins at Nant Hall Road, Prestatyn. Animal bone and flint artefacts, flint knapping site suggesting an occupation site in the near vicinity, C14 indicates late Bronze Age date.

(CPAT SMR PRN 106454)

Excavation CPAT / 1992

Thomas, D, 1992;

 

Industrial

 

Llanymynech Ogof Mine (Prehistoric Phase), Carreghofa, Powys

Prehistoric element of multi-period mining site. (CPAT SMR PRN 23399)

Visit CPAT / 1995

 

Nant yr Eira Mine (bronze age phase), Llangurig, Powys

Bronze Age opencast site for the extraction of lead and copper. Trial excavations have produced stone mining tools, ore, charcoal. C14 dating confirms BA date. (CPAT SMR PRN 23402)

Excavation Timberlake, S / 1990

Bick, D, 1999; Cadw, 1997; Timberlake 1990

 

Religious, Ritual and Funerary

 

Aelwyd Uchaf Tumulus B, Tremeirchion, Denbighshire

Excavated barrow with secondary burials (CPAT SMR PRN 102087)

Excavation Unknown / 1955

Davies, E, 1949; Hemp, W J, 1923;

 

Aelwyd Uchaf Tumulus C, Cwm, Denbighshire

Excavated barrow (CPAT SMR PRN 102086)

Excavation Unknown / 1956

 

Brecon Grammar School cist, Brecon, Powys

An irregular, pentagonal cist containing the bones of at least one adult (CPAT SMR PRN 72114)

Excavation Unknown / 1961

RCAHMW, 1997;

 

Brenig 6: kerb cairn, Llanrhaeadr-yng-nghinmeirch, Denbighshire

Excavated kerb cairn (CPAT SMR PRN 100637)

Excavation Lynch, F / 1973

Allen, D, 1973; Allen, D, 1974; Allen, D, 1975; Bradley, R, 2000; Burnham, H, 1995; Lynch, F, 1977; Lynch, F, 1993;

 

Brenig 8: Waen Ddafed round barrow, Llanrhaeadr-yng-nghinmeirch, Denbighshire

Excavated cairn Central rock cut grave surrounded by a stone kerb and covered by small stones Restored (CPAT SMR PRN 100634)

Excavation Allen, D / 1973

Burnham, H, 1995; Davies, E, 1929; Lynch, F, 1974; Lynch, F, 1993; RCAHM, 1914; Ward, A H, 1973;

 

Brenig 14: cairn, Llanrhaeadr-yng-nghinmeirch, Denbighshire

Excavated cairn 5m long by 1.5m wide was identified south of the central area, which contained charcoal and cremated bones. (CPAT SMR PRN 100639)

Excavation Lynch, F / 1973

Lynch, F, 1974; Lynch, F, 1993;

 

Brenig 40: burial mound, Nantglyn, Denbighshire

Excavated barrow. Turf capped with clay and covered a complex of four stake circles, the remains of a timber mortuary structure and a cremation burial in a Collared Urn. The edge of the barrow had been delimited by a timber palisade. Pollen sampling site (CPAT SMR PRN 23650)

Excavation Lynch, F / 1973-5

Caseldine, A, 1990; Lynch, F, 1993;

 

Brenig 41: Cefn Brenig barrow A, Nantglyn, Denbighshire

Large circular barrow Turf mound capped with grey clay and covering two stake circles and

a disturbed and empty grave pit probably designed for an inhumation. A third stake circle apparently pre-dated the burial mound. Pollen sampling site (CPAT SMR PRN 100620)

Excavation Lynch, F / 1973

Caseldine, A, 1990; Davies, E, 1929; Lynch, F, 1977; Lynch, F, 1993; Waddell, J, 1973; Waddell, J & Grealey, S, 1974;

 

Brenig 42: Cefn Brenig Barrow C, Nantglyn, Denbighshire

Excavated barrow. Turf mound covering a central rectangular structure and two stake holes. At the edge of the mound there was an annular bank of clay and stones formed by upcast from the surrounding ditch. Pollen sampling site (CPAT SMR PRN 100622)

Excavation Lynch, F / 1973

Excavation / C19th

Allen, D, 1973; Davies, E, 1929; Lynch, F, 1977; Lynch, F, 1993; Waddell, J & Grealey, S, 1974;

 

Brenig 44: ring cairn, Llanrhaeadr-yng-nghinmeirch, Denbighshire

Excavated ring cairn surrounded by post hole ring (CPAT SMR PRN 100635)

Excavation Lynch, F / 1977

Davies, E, 1929; Davies, J, 1999; Gibson, A, 1998; Lynch, F, 1973; Lynch, F, 1974; Lynch, F, 1993;

 

Brenig 45: Broncyn Arian round barrow, Nantglyn, Denbighshire

Excavated complex barrow. Central burial area surrounded by three stake circles which in turn were encompassed by a low, poorly built wall of spaced uprights and dry masonry. Seven cremated burials and over 300 flints from the mound at its vicinity. Pollen sampling site (CPAT SMR PRN 100627)

Excavation Unknown / 1859

Excavation Lynch, F / 1973

Caseldine, A, 1990; Davies, E, 1929; Grealey, S, 1974; Lynch, F, 1993;

 

Brenig 46: Cairn, Llanrhaeadr-yng-nghinmeirch, Denbighshire

Heavily disturbed cairn excavated in 1974 consisted of a stone kerb surrounding a very disturbed central area, the stones from which formed a clearance cairn to the northwest. (CPAT SMR PRN 100682)

Excavation Lynch, F / 1974

Allen, D, 1975; Burnham, H, 1995; Lynch, F, 1993;

 

Brenig 47: Bwlch Du Barrow, Nantglyn, Denbighshire

Excavated barrow - now reconstructed Pollen sampling site (CPAT SMR PRN 100617)

Excavation Lynch, F / 1973

Caseldine, A, 1990; Davies, E, 1929; Lynch, F, 1973; Lynch, F, 1974; Lynch, F, 1993;

 

Brenig 51: platform cairn, Llanrhaeadr-yng-nghinmeirch, Denbighshire

Platform cairn overlying Beaker occupation Pollen sampling site (CPAT SMR PRN 100640)

Excavation Lynch, F / 1975

Caseldine, A, 1990; Lynch, F, 1975; Lynch, F, 1977; Lynch, F, 1993;

 

Bryn Beddau burial site, Clocaenog, Denbighshire

Two Bronze Age burial groups comprising two primary inhumations pits and three secondary cremations. (CPAT SMR PRN 100737)

Excavation Savory, H N / 1960

Foese, H E, 1985; Savory, H N, 1961; Savory, H N, 1980;

 

Bryn-y-ffynnon Beaker burial, Brymbo, Wrexham

Cist burial with crouched beaker inhumation (CPAT SMR PRN 100038)

Excavation Unknown / 1958

Foese, H E, 1985; Savory, H N, 1959; Savory, H N, 1959; Savory, H N, 1959; Savory, H N, 1980; Wrexham Leader, 1958;

 

Bryn-yr-ellyllon Tumulus, Mold, Flintshire

Barrow containing BA gold cape (the 'Mold Cape') found during building work in C19th. Small trench excavated by Flintshire Historical Society in 1953 found no trace of artificial structure remaining. (CPAT SMR PRN 100055)

Excavation Flintshire Historical Soc / 1953

Aldhouse-Green, S, 1996; British Museum, 1920; Davies, E, 1949; Frost, P, 1994; Grimes, W F, 1951; Langford, J & Clough, C B, 1836; Leslie, H, 1869; Llwyd, A, 1564; Powell, T G E, 1953; Powell, T G E, 1955; RCAHM, 1912;

 

Carn Goch Cairn, Ystradgynlais, Powys

Excavated cairn (CPAT SMR PRN 681)

Excavation CPAT / 1987

Dorling, P, 1987; Dorling, P & Chambers, F M, 1990; RCAHMW, 1997; Thomas, D, 1995;

 

Carneddau cairn I, Carno, Powys

Complex excavated cairn C14 dates (CPAT SMR PRN 6313)

Excavation CPAT / 1989

Brassil, K & Gibson, A, 1999; Gibson, A, 1989; Gibson, A, 1989; Gibson, A, 1991; Gibson, A, 1993; Gibson, A M, 1998; Silvester, R J, 1990;

 

Carneddau cairn II, Carno, Powys

Turf covered circular stone cairn. Excavated. C14 dates (CPAT SMR PRN 6312)

Excavation CPAT / 1990

Gibson, A, 1993; Gibson, A M, 1998; Silvester, R J, 1990;

 

Carreg Llwyd stone alignment, Carno, Powys

Stone row. Excavations demonstrated single alignment, with a number of the stones falling in opposing directions (to the east or west). (CPAT SMR PRN 4309)

Evaluation CPAT / 1993

Survey CPAT / 1999

Excavation CPAT / 2000

Brassil, K, 1987; Gibson, A M, 1998; Jones, N W & Owen, W G, 1999; Jones, N W, Silvester, R J & Walker, M J C, 2000; Owen, W G, 1993;

 

Carreg Lwyd ring cairn I, Carno, Powys

Partially excavated ring cairn. (CPAT SMR PRN 4308)

Evaluation CPAT / 1993

Survey CPAT / 1999

Excavation CPAT / 2000

Brassil, K, 1987; Hamer, E, 1868; Jones, N W & Owen, W G, 1999; Jones, N W, Silvester, R J & Walker, M J C, 2000; Owen, W G, 1993; RCAHM, 1973;

 

Cefn Coch barrow, Llanferres, Denbighshire

Cairn excavated 1950-4 it contained no primary burial but 10 secondary cremations accompanied by 4 urns and a pigmy cup as well as other grave goods. (CPAT SMR PRN 102302)

Excavation Bevan-Evans, M & Hayes, P / 1950-4

Bevan-Evans, M & Hayes, P, 1953; Bevan-Evans, M & Hayes, P, 1955; Thomas, D, 1997;

 

Coed y Dinas Ring Ditch I, Welshpool, Powys

Excavated ring ditch Beaker pottery from lower ditch silts with C14 date (CPAT SMR PRN 3965)

Excavation CPAT / 1992

Gibson, A, 1992; Gibson, A, 1994; Gibson, A M, 1993; Gibson, A M, 1998; Jones, N W & Owen, W J, 2001; RCAHM, 1975; Thomas, D, 1998;

 

Coed y Dinas Ring ditch II, Welshpool, Powys

Excavated ring ditch C14 date (CPAT SMR PRN 17397)

Excavation CPAT / 1992 Arable

Gibson, A, 1992; Gibson, A M, 1993; Gibson, A M, 1998; Jones, N W & Owen, W J, 2001;

 

Coed y Garreg Cairn, Ystradfellte, Powys

Excavated cairn with secondary burials (CPAT SMR PRN 834)

Excavation Holloway, K / 1965

 

Corn Du Cairn, Glyn Tarell, Powys

Cairn central cist and a circular orthostatic surround. Salvage excavation 1978 prompted by serious errosion by walkers. Total excavation 1992. C14 date Pollen sampling site (CPAT SMR PRN 3184)

Excavation Crew, P / 1981

Excavation CPAT / 1990-1992

Caseldine, A, 1990; Crew, P, 1978; Crew, P, 1979; Gibson, A, 1990; Gibson, A, 1992; Gibson, A, 1993; Gibson, A, 1993; Gibson, A, 1997; Jones, P, 1972; RCAHMW, 1997;

 

Corndon Hill Barrow IV, Churchstoke, Powys

Excavated barrow (CPAT SMR PRN 492)

Excavation Conway Lloyd and Savory / 1951

Gibson, A M, 1998; Morgan, T O, 1907;

 

Cwm Difwg Barrow III, St Harmon, Powys

One of a group of excavated barrows (CPAT SMR PRN 5730)

Excavation Burgess, C B / 1962

Burgess, C B, 1961; Burgess, C B, 1962; RCAHM, 1913;

 

Dyffryn Lane Barrow I, Berriew, Powys

Complex multiple site comprising a barrow sited within a henge (see above) and surrounded by a stone circle. (CPAT SMR PRN 3590)

Excavation Lewis, D P / 1857

Survey CPAT /

Burl, A, 2000; Gibson, A, 1995; Harding, A F & Lee, G E, 1987; Lewis, P D, 1857; Musson, C R, 1984; Thomas, D, 1998;

 

Four Crosses Barrow Cemetery, Cae Hen ring ditch 1, Llandysilio, Powys

Excavated ploughed out barrow containing multiple stake circles and central grave. (CPAT SMR PRN 6073)

Excavation Warrilow, W / 1983

Gibson, A M, 1998; Warrilow, W, 1983;

 

Four Crosses Barrow Cemetery, site 1, Llandysilio, Powys

Ring ditch Excavated revealing round barrow containing stake circles C14 dates. (CPAT SMR PRN 3605)

Excavation CPAT / 1981-83

Jones, G D B, 1979; Warrilow, W, Owen, G & Britnell, W, 1986;

 

Four Crosses Barrow Cemetery, site 2, Llandysilio, Powys

Bronze Age element of excavated multi period barrow C14 dates. (CPAT SMR PRN 3604)

Excavation CPAT / 1984 Arable Pasture

Jones, G D B, 1979; Silvester, R J, 1992; Warrilow, W, Owen, G & Britnell, W, 1986;

 

Four Crosses Barrow Cemetery, site 2 (bronze age), Llandysilio, Powys

Excavated barrow. Contained by single ring ditch with single central grave with no surviving burial. (CPAT SMR PRN 50525)

Excavation CPAT / 1984

Gibson, A M, 1998; Jones, G D B, 1979; Warrilow, W, Owen, G & Britnell, W, 1986;

 

Four Crosses Barrow Cemetery, site 2 (bronze age), Llandysilio, Powys

Excavated barrow defined by ring ditch with 5 concentric stake circles surrounding a primary burial in a central pit within an irregular part-oval stake setting open to the NE. C14 date (CPAT SMR PRN 50559)

Excavation CPAT / 1984

Gibson, A M, 1998; Jones, G D B, 1979; Warrilow, W, Owen, G & Britnell, W, 1986;

 

Four Crosses Barrow Cemetery, site 3, Llandysilio, Powys

Excavated ring ditch (CPAT SMR PRN 5372)

Excavation CPAT / 1984 

Gibson, A M, 1998; Gibson, A M, 1998; Warrilow, W, Owen, G & Britnell, W, 1986;

 

Four Crosses Barrow Cemetery, site 4, Llandysilio, Powys

Excavated ring ditch (CPAT SMR PRN 3596)

Excavation CPAT / 1982 

Gibson, A M, 1998; Jones, G D B, 1979; RCAHM, 1976; Warrilow, W, Owen, G & Britnell, W, 1986;

 

Four Crosses Barrow Cemetery, site 5, Llandysilio, Powys

Excavated double concentric ring ditch with concentric internal stake circles. C14 dates. Pollen sampling site (CPAT SMR PRN 3600)

Excavation CPAT / 1983

Caseldine, A, 1990; Gibson, A & Kinnes, I, 1997; Gibson, A M, 1998; Warrilow, W, Owen, G & Britnell, W, 1986; Wimble, G, 1986;

 

Four Crosses Barrow Cemetery, site 6, Llandysilio, Powys

Excavated ring ditch. Central grave minimal structure. Pollen sampling site (CPAT SMR PRN 6423)

Excavation CPAT / 1984

Caseldine, A, 1990; Warrilow, W, Owen, G & Britnell, W, 1986; Wimble, G, 1986;

 

Four Crosses Barrow Cemetery, site 7, Llandysilio, Powys

Excavated barrow ring ditch encircling low area of residual mound C14 date (CPAT SMR PRN 50554)

Excavation CPAT / 1984-85

Gibson, A M, 1998; Gibson, A M, 1998; Warrilow, W, Owen, G & Britnell, W, 1986;

 

Gop Cairn, Trelawnyd and Gwaenysgor, Flintshire

Largest cairn in Wales, Summit has been lowered or flattened. Excavated by Boyd Dawkins 1886 and 1887 by sinking a shaft in the centre (CPAT SMR PRN 102207)

Excavation Boyd Dawkins / 1886

Boyd Dawkins, 1901; Boyd Dawkins, 1902; Boyd Dawkins, 1921; Brassil, K, 1986; Burnham, H, 1995; Davies, E, 1949; Lloyd, G, 1967;

 

Hendre Farm barrow, Halkyn, Flintshire

Natural mound containing inserted burials C14 dates. (CPAT SMR PRN 100231)

Excavation CPAT / 1989

Brassil, K, 1991; Brassil, K & Gibson, A, 1999; Brassil, K, Jones, N & Owen, W, 1989; Davies, E, 1949; Tasker, H N & Wilkinson, J L, 1995;

 

Hindwell Ash Barrow, Old Radnor, Powys

Excavated Barrow 3The turf built barrow was encircled by a ditch. C14 date. (CPAT SMR PRN 307)

Excavation Pye, W R and Cain, R / 1976

Excavation CPAT / 1993

Dunn, C J, 1965; Dunn, C J, 1974; Gibson, A, 1993; Gibson, A, 1998; Gibson, A, 1999; Gibson, A, 2000; Gibson, A, 2000;

 

Holt, Bronze Age burial site, Holt, Wrexham

Bronze Age cremation found during excavation of Roman barracks at Holt in 1909 Food Vessel, a second cinerary urn and a pygmy (CPAT SMR PRN 101257)

Excavation / 1909

Davies, E, 1929; Grimes, W F, 1930; RCAHM, 1914; Savory, H N, 1980;

 

Holywell Racecourse Tumulus I, Ysceifiog, Flintshire

Excavated barrow within Holywell Earth Circle. Primary and secondary burials (CPAT 1999). (CPAT SMR PRN 102386)

Excavation Fox / 1925

Burnham, H, 1995; Davies, E, 1949; Fox, C, 1926; Gibson, A, 1999; Hemp, W J, 1923; Roese, H E, 1985; Savory, H N, 1980;

 

Lan Fawr cairn III, Churchstoke, Powys

Small-scale excavations of apparent clearance cairn - collared urn and cremation. C14 dates (CPAT SMR PRN 17192)

Excavation / 1986

Britnell, W J, 1986; Britnell, W J, 1988; Britnell, W J, Martin, C H R & Hankinson, R, 2000; Gibson, A, 1998; Gibson, A M, 1998;

 

Llong Tumulus, Leeswood, Flintshire

Excavated barrow primary and secondary burials. Jet beads, flints (CPAT SMR PRN 100090)

Excavation Hayes, P / 1954-6

Excavation Lynch, F / 1983

Davies, E, 1949; Hayes, P, 1953; Hayes, P, 1957; Lynch, F, 1983; Savory, H N, 1957; Watson, K, 1965; Williams, C R, 1961;

 

Mynydd y Drum Ring Cairn, Ystradgynlais, Powys

Excavated ring cairn. C14 dates. Pollen sampling site(CPAT SMR PRN 6186)

Excavation CPAT / 1987

Dorling, P & Chambers, F M, 1990; Dorling, P J, 1987; RCAHMW, 1997; Thomas, D, 1995;

 

Pant-y-Dulath round barrow, Tremeirchion, Denbighshire

Excavated barrow. Primary burial in 'tree trunk coffin'. Secondaries with food vessels (CPAT SMR PRN 102118)

Excavation Hayes, P / 1957

Davies, E, 1949; Hayes, P, 1958; Hayes, P, 1996; Unknown, 1923; Unknown, 1957;

 

Pen y Fan Cairn, Llanfrynach, Powys

Cairn excavated in response to tourist destruction. Organics well preserved below cairn on OGS and within basal layers of turf mound. Small bronze hoard. C14 dates. Reconstructed. (CPAT SMR PRN 2389)

Excavation Crew, P / 1983

Excavation CPAT / 1990-1992

Gibson, A, 1990; Gibson, A, 1991; Gibson, A, 1992; Gibson, A, 1993; Gibson, A, 1997; Jones, P, 1978; Jones, P M & Palmer, K, 1983; RCAHMW, 1997;

 

Pennant Melangell Church (St Melangell), BA cremation, Llangynog, Powys

Prehistoric pits at the west end and beneath the tower of Melangell church. Filled with dense charcoal layer, charred plant remains and human cremated remains. C14 dates (CPAT SMR PRN 50677)

Excavation CPAT / 1990

Britnell, B, 1992; Gibson, A M, 1998; Thomas, D, 1992; Wessex Archaeology, 1994;

 

Tandderwen cropmark complex, cremation cemetery, Denbigh, Denbighshire

Five unenclosed cremation pits. Food Vessels. (CPAT SMR PRN 25239)

Excavation CPAT / 1986

Brassil, K S, Owen, W G & Britnell, W J, 1991;

 

Tandderwen cropmark complex, ring ditch I, Denbigh, Denbighshire

Large ring ditch containing stone lined pit with primary beaker and food vessel cremation. (CPAT SMR PRN 101777)

Excavation CPAT / 1988

Brassil, K & Owen, W G, 1988; Brassil, K S & Meredith, P J, 1986; Brassil, K S, Owen, W G & Britnell, W J, 1991;

 

Tandderwen cropmark complex, ring ditch III, Denbigh, Denbighshire

Elliptical ring ditch containing cremation in pit. (CPAT SMR PRN 101892)

Excavation CPAT / 1986

Brassil, K S & Meredith, P J, 1986; Brassil, K S, Owen, W G & Britnell, W J, 1991; Brassil, K S, Owen, W G & Britnell, W J, 1991;

 

Trelystan Round Barrows, Trewern, Powys

Bronze Age two-barrow cemetery dated between c1800 and 1500BC. Cremations in pits with Food Vessel, enlarged mounds retained by complex stake circles and orthostatic walls Multiple finds. C14 dates (CPAT SMR PRN 132)

Excavation CPAT / 1979

Bradley, R, 2000; Brassil, K & Gibson, A, 1999; Britnell, W, 1982; Moore-Colyer, R J, 1996; Musson, C R, 1984;

 

Upper Ninepence barrow, Old Radnor, Powys

Excavated barrow, Organic debris Overlying Neolithic house (see above). C14 dates (CPAT SMR PRN 305)

Excavation Unknown / 1966

Excavation CPAT / 1994

Dudd, S N, Evershed, R P & Gibson, A M, 1999; Dunn, C J, 1965; Dunn, C J, 1966; Dunn, C J, 1966; Dunn, C J, 1969; Dunn, C J, 1974; Gibson, A, 1994; Gibson, A, 1995; Gibson, A, 1995; Gibson, A, 1995; Gibson, A, 1998; Gibson, A, 1999; Gibson, A, 2000; Gibson, A & Donahue, R, 1997;

 

Ynys Hir Cairn, Trallong, Powys

Excavated turf-covered barrow containing two concentric rings of stones within outer kerb. Primary cremation burial found in pit in cairn centre. Grave goods found in pit to northeast. Adjacent to stone circle. (CPAT SMR PRN 848)

Excavation Dunning, G C / 1940

 

Ynys Hir Stone Circle, Trallong, Powys

Totally excavated stone circle originally constructed with 27 stones but only 14 stone now remain (OS 1976).

Excavation Dunning, G C / 1940

Burl, A, 2000; Dunning, G C, 1943; Grimes, W F, 1936; Grimes, W F, 1951; Morgan, W W, 1911; RCAHMW, 1997; Spicer, R D, 1979;

 

Ysgwennant barrow, Llansilin, Powys

Excavated barrow Burial with two beakers in pits. (CPAT SMR PRN 100990)

Excavation Day, W & Savory, H N / 1951-68

Clarke, D L, 1970; Davies, E, 1929; Day, W, 1963; Day, W, 1964; Day, W, 1965; Day, W, 1966; Day, W, 1967; Day, W & Savory, H N, 1972; RCAHM, 1914; Savory, H N, 1980; Wymer, J J, 1977;

 

Ysgwennant barrow, bronze age finds, Llansilin, Powys

Excavated round barrow. Two primary cremations and Beakers in pits cut into sand and a secondary cremation in an inverted urn. C14 date (CPAT SMR PRN 100993)

Aldhouse-Green, S, 1996; Clarke, D L, 1970; Davies, E, 1929; Day, W & Savory, H N, 1972; Gibson, A M, 1998; RCAHM, 1914; Savory, H N, 1980; Wymer, J J, 1977;

 

Ystrad Hynod barrow, Trefeglwys, Powys

Totallt excavated round barrow excavated. Primary and secondary cremations with accessories. Fallen stone indicates pre barrow activity. (CPAT SMR PRN 906)

Excavation Ap Simon, A M / 1965-66

Apsimon, A M, 1973; Gibson, A M, 1998; Hamer, E, 1872; Murphy, K, 1992;

RCAHM, 1911;

 

 

 

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