A Research Framework for the Archaeology of Wales

East and Northeast Wales – Later Prehistoric, Key Sites

22/12/2003

 

 

BRONZE AGE

 

Defence

 

Breiddin hillfort, phase 2 occupation (LBA), Bausley with Criggion, Powys

Late Bronze Age timber reinforced rampart (possibly re-built once) enclosing the hilltop. C14 dates Internal occupation. (CPAT SMR PRN 50054)

Excavation Musson / 1969-75

Musson, C R, 1970; Musson, C R, 1971; Musson, C R, 1972; Musson, C R, 1974; Musson, C R, 1991

 

Dinorben hillfort, Bronze Age site, Abergele, Conwy

Late Bronze Age palisaded enclosure (CPAT SMR PRN 102002)

Excavation Guilbert / 1978(/ /)

Savory, H N, 1971; Savory, H N, 1980; Unknown, 1949;

 

Domestic

 

Broad Heath enclosure, prehistoric occupation, Presteigne, Powys

A curving ditch containing MBA pottery beneath Broad Heath Roman enclosure, (CPAT SMR PRN 72366)

Excavation CPAT / 1997

Jones, N W & Owen, W J, 2000;

 

Carneddau cairn I, pre-cairn activity, Carno, Powys

Activity pre-dating the building of the cairn. Evidence for tree felling and burning (Gibson, A 1993, 34). (CPAT SMR PRN 50632)

Excavation CPAT / 1989

Gibson, A, 1993;

 

Glanfeinion round house, Llandinam, Powys

Middle Bronze Age roundhouse found during topsoil stripping in advance of gas pipeline. Excavation revealed a penannular gully 12m in diameter surrounding a ring of post-holes with a diameter of

c7m. Probable porch on southeast. C14 dates (CPAT SMR PRN 19453)

Excavation CPAT / 1993

Britnell, W J, Silvester, R J, Gibson, A, Caseldine, A E, Hunter, K L, Johnson, S, Hamilton-Dyer, S & Vince, A, 1997; Hankinson, R, 1994; Silvester, R J, 1994;

 

Llanymynech hillfort, Bronze Age occupation, Carreghofa, Powys

An evaluation in the interior of the hillfort produced important new evidence for Bronze Age occupation within the hillfort. The lithic assemblage demonstrates flint knapping taking place to produce a range of tools (CPAT SMR PRN 72152)

Evaluation CPAT / 1999

Owen, W G, 1999;

 

Nant Hall Road, Prestatyn, Denbighshire

Shell middens located in the wetland margins at Nant Hall Road, Prestatyn. Animal bone and flint artefacts, flint knapping site suggesting an occupation site in the near vicinity, C14 indicates late Bronze Age date.

(CPAT SMR PRN 106454)

Excavation CPAT / 1992

Thomas, D, 1992;

 

Industrial

 

Llanymynech Ogof Mine (Prehistoric Phase), Carreghofa, Powys

Prehistoric element of multi-period mining site. (CPAT SMR PRN 23399)

Visit CPAT / 1995

 

Nant yr Eira Mine (bronze age phase), Llangurig, Powys

Bronze Age opencast site for the extraction of lead and copper. Trial excavations have produced stone mining tools, ore, charcoal. C14 dating confirms BA date. (CPAT SMR PRN 23402)

Excavation Timberlake, S / 1990

Bick, D, 1999; Cadw, 1997; Timberlake 1990

 

Religious, Ritual and Funerary

 

Aelwyd Uchaf Tumulus B, Tremeirchion, Denbighshire

Excavated barrow with secondary burials (CPAT SMR PRN 102087)

Excavation Unknown / 1955

Davies, E, 1949; Hemp, W J, 1923;

 

Aelwyd Uchaf Tumulus C, Cwm, Denbighshire

Excavated barrow (CPAT SMR PRN 102086)

Excavation Unknown / 1956

 

Brecon Grammar School cist, Brecon, Powys

An irregular, pentagonal cist containing the bones of at least one adult (CPAT SMR PRN 72114)

Excavation Unknown / 1961

RCAHMW, 1997;

 

Brenig 6: kerb cairn, Llanrhaeadr-yng-nghinmeirch, Denbighshire

Excavated kerb cairn (CPAT SMR PRN 100637)

Excavation Lynch, F / 1973

Allen, D, 1973; Allen, D, 1974; Allen, D, 1975; Bradley, R, 2000; Burnham, H, 1995; Lynch, F, 1977; Lynch, F, 1993;

 

Brenig 8: Waen Ddafed round barrow, Llanrhaeadr-yng-nghinmeirch, Denbighshire

Excavated cairn Central rock cut grave surrounded by a stone kerb and covered by small stones Restored (CPAT SMR PRN 100634)

Excavation Allen, D / 1973

Burnham, H, 1995; Davies, E, 1929; Lynch, F, 1974; Lynch, F, 1993; RCAHM, 1914; Ward, A H, 1973;

 

Brenig 14: cairn, Llanrhaeadr-yng-nghinmeirch, Denbighshire

Excavated cairn 5m long by 1.5m wide was identified south of the central area, which contained charcoal and cremated bones. (CPAT SMR PRN 100639)

Excavation Lynch, F / 1973

Lynch, F, 1974; Lynch, F, 1993;

 

Brenig 40: burial mound, Nantglyn, Denbighshire

Excavated barrow. Turf capped with clay and covered a complex of four stake circles, the remains of a timber mortuary structure and a cremation burial in a Collared Urn. The edge of the barrow had been delimited by a timber palisade. Pollen sampling site (CPAT SMR PRN 23650)

Excavation Lynch, F / 1973-5

Caseldine, A, 1990; Lynch, F, 1993;

 

Brenig 41: Cefn Brenig barrow A, Nantglyn, Denbighshire

Large circular barrow Turf mound capped with grey clay and covering two stake circles and

a disturbed and empty grave pit probably designed for an inhumation. A third stake circle apparently pre-dated the burial mound. Pollen sampling site (CPAT SMR PRN 100620)

Excavation Lynch, F / 1973

Caseldine, A, 1990; Davies, E, 1929; Lynch, F, 1977; Lynch, F, 1993; Waddell, J, 1973; Waddell, J & Grealey, S, 1974;

 

Brenig 42: Cefn Brenig Barrow C, Nantglyn, Denbighshire

Excavated barrow. Turf mound covering a central rectangular structure and two stake holes. At the edge of the mound there was an annular bank of clay and stones formed by upcast from the surrounding ditch. Pollen sampling site (CPAT SMR PRN 100622)

Excavation Lynch, F / 1973

Excavation / C19th

Allen, D, 1973; Davies, E, 1929; Lynch, F, 1977; Lynch, F, 1993; Waddell, J & Grealey, S, 1974;

 

Brenig 44: ring cairn, Llanrhaeadr-yng-nghinmeirch, Denbighshire

Excavated ring cairn surrounded by post hole ring (CPAT SMR PRN 100635)

Excavation Lynch, F / 1977

Davies, E, 1929; Davies, J, 1999; Gibson, A, 1998; Lynch, F, 1973; Lynch, F, 1974; Lynch, F, 1993;

 

Brenig 45: Broncyn Arian round barrow, Nantglyn, Denbighshire

Excavated complex barrow. Central burial area surrounded by three stake circles which in turn were encompassed by a low, poorly built wall of spaced uprights and dry masonry. Seven cremated burials and over 300 flints from the mound at its vicinity. Pollen sampling site (CPAT SMR PRN 100627)

Excavation Unknown / 1859

Excavation Lynch, F / 1973

Caseldine, A, 1990; Davies, E, 1929; Grealey, S, 1974; Lynch, F, 1993;

 

Brenig 46: Cairn, Llanrhaeadr-yng-nghinmeirch, Denbighshire

Heavily disturbed cairn excavated in 1974 consisted of a stone kerb surrounding a very disturbed central area, the stones from which formed a clearance cairn to the northwest. (CPAT SMR PRN 100682)

Excavation Lynch, F / 1974

Allen, D, 1975; Burnham, H, 1995; Lynch, F, 1993;

 

Brenig 47: Bwlch Du Barrow, Nantglyn, Denbighshire

Excavated barrow - now reconstructed Pollen sampling site (CPAT SMR PRN 100617)

Excavation Lynch, F / 1973

Caseldine, A, 1990; Davies, E, 1929; Lynch, F, 1973; Lynch, F, 1974; Lynch, F, 1993;

 

Brenig 51: platform cairn, Llanrhaeadr-yng-nghinmeirch, Denbighshire

Platform cairn overlying Beaker occupation Pollen sampling site (CPAT SMR PRN 100640)

Excavation Lynch, F / 1975

Caseldine, A, 1990; Lynch, F, 1975; Lynch, F, 1977; Lynch, F, 1993;

 

Bryn Beddau burial site, Clocaenog, Denbighshire

Two Bronze Age burial groups comprising two primary inhumations pits and three secondary cremations. (CPAT SMR PRN 100737)

Excavation Savory, H N / 1960

Foese, H E, 1985; Savory, H N, 1961; Savory, H N, 1980;

 

Bryn-y-ffynnon Beaker burial, Brymbo, Wrexham

Cist burial with crouched beaker inhumation (CPAT SMR PRN 100038)

Excavation Unknown / 1958

Foese, H E, 1985; Savory, H N, 1959; Savory, H N, 1959; Savory, H N, 1959; Savory, H N, 1980; Wrexham Leader, 1958;

 

Bryn-yr-ellyllon Tumulus, Mold, Flintshire

Barrow containing BA gold cape (the 'Mold Cape') found during building work in C19th. Small trench excavated by Flintshire Historical Society in 1953 found no trace of artificial structure remaining. (CPAT SMR PRN 100055)

Excavation Flintshire Historical Soc / 1953

Aldhouse-Green, S, 1996; British Museum, 1920; Davies, E, 1949; Frost, P, 1994; Grimes, W F, 1951; Langford, J & Clough, C B, 1836; Leslie, H, 1869; Llwyd, A, 1564; Powell, T G E, 1953; Powell, T G E, 1955; RCAHM, 1912;

 

Carn Goch Cairn, Ystradgynlais, Powys

Excavated cairn (CPAT SMR PRN 681)

Excavation CPAT / 1987

Dorling, P, 1987; Dorling, P & Chambers, F M, 1990; RCAHMW, 1997; Thomas, D, 1995;

 

Carneddau cairn I, Carno, Powys

Complex excavated cairn C14 dates (CPAT SMR PRN 6313)

Excavation CPAT / 1989

Brassil, K & Gibson, A, 1999; Gibson, A, 1989; Gibson, A, 1989; Gibson, A, 1991; Gibson, A, 1993; Gibson, A M, 1998; Silvester, R J, 1990;

 

Carneddau cairn II, Carno, Powys

Turf covered circular stone cairn. Excavated. C14 dates (CPAT SMR PRN 6312)

Excavation CPAT / 1990

Gibson, A, 1993; Gibson, A M, 1998; Silvester, R J, 1990;

 

Carreg Llwyd stone alignment, Carno, Powys

Stone row. Excavations demonstrated single alignment, with a number of the stones falling in opposing directions (to the east or west). (CPAT SMR PRN 4309)

Evaluation CPAT / 1993

Survey CPAT / 1999

Excavation CPAT / 2000

Brassil, K, 1987; Gibson, A M, 1998; Jones, N W & Owen, W G, 1999; Jones, N W, Silvester, R J & Walker, M J C, 2000; Owen, W G, 1993;

 

Carreg Lwyd ring cairn I, Carno, Powys

Partially excavated ring cairn. (CPAT SMR PRN 4308)

Evaluation CPAT / 1993

Survey CPAT / 1999

Excavation CPAT / 2000

Brassil, K, 1987; Hamer, E, 1868; Jones, N W & Owen, W G, 1999; Jones, N W, Silvester, R J & Walker, M J C, 2000; Owen, W G, 1993; RCAHM, 1973;

 

Cefn Coch barrow, Llanferres, Denbighshire

Cairn excavated 1950-4 it contained no primary burial but 10 secondary cremations accompanied by 4 urns and a pigmy cup as well as other grave goods. (CPAT SMR PRN 102302)

Excavation Bevan-Evans, M & Hayes, P / 1950-4

Bevan-Evans, M & Hayes, P, 1953; Bevan-Evans, M & Hayes, P, 1955; Thomas, D, 1997;

 

Coed y Dinas Ring Ditch I, Welshpool, Powys

Excavated ring ditch Beaker pottery from lower ditch silts with C14 date (CPAT SMR PRN 3965)

Excavation CPAT / 1992

Gibson, A, 1992; Gibson, A, 1994; Gibson, A M, 1993; Gibson, A M, 1998; Jones, N W & Owen, W J, 2001; RCAHM, 1975; Thomas, D, 1998;

 

Coed y Dinas Ring ditch II, Welshpool, Powys

Excavated ring ditch C14 date (CPAT SMR PRN 17397)

Excavation CPAT / 1992 Arable

Gibson, A, 1992; Gibson, A M, 1993; Gibson, A M, 1998; Jones, N W & Owen, W J, 2001;

 

Coed y Garreg Cairn, Ystradfellte, Powys

Excavated cairn with secondary burials (CPAT SMR PRN 834)

Excavation Holloway, K / 1965

 

Corn Du Cairn, Glyn Tarell, Powys

Cairn central cist and a circular orthostatic surround. Salvage excavation 1978 prompted by serious errosion by walkers. Total excavation 1992. C14 date Pollen sampling site (CPAT SMR PRN 3184)

Excavation Crew, P / 1981

Excavation CPAT / 1990-1992

Caseldine, A, 1990; Crew, P, 1978; Crew, P, 1979; Gibson, A, 1990; Gibson, A, 1992; Gibson, A, 1993; Gibson, A, 1993; Gibson, A, 1997; Jones, P, 1972; RCAHMW, 1997;

 

Corndon Hill Barrow IV, Churchstoke, Powys

Excavated barrow (CPAT SMR PRN 492)

Excavation Conway Lloyd and Savory / 1951

Gibson, A M, 1998; Morgan, T O, 1907;

 

Cwm Difwg Barrow III, St Harmon, Powys

One of a group of excavated barrows (CPAT SMR PRN 5730)

Excavation Burgess, C B / 1962

Burgess, C B, 1961; Burgess, C B, 1962; RCAHM, 1913;

 

Dyffryn Lane Barrow I, Berriew, Powys

Complex multiple site comprising a barrow sited within a henge (see above) and surrounded by a stone circle. (CPAT SMR PRN 3590)

Excavation Lewis, D P / 1857

Survey CPAT /

Burl, A, 2000; Gibson, A, 1995; Harding, A F & Lee, G E, 1987; Lewis, P D, 1857; Musson, C R, 1984; Thomas, D, 1998;

 

Four Crosses Barrow Cemetery, Cae Hen ring ditch 1, Llandysilio, Powys

Excavated ploughed out barrow containing multiple stake circles and central grave. (CPAT SMR PRN 6073)

Excavation Warrilow, W / 1983

Gibson, A M, 1998; Warrilow, W, 1983;

 

Four Crosses Barrow Cemetery, site 1, Llandysilio, Powys

Ring ditch Excavated revealing round barrow containing stake circles C14 dates. (CPAT SMR PRN 3605)

Excavation CPAT / 1981-83

Jones, G D B, 1979; Warrilow, W, Owen, G & Britnell, W, 1986;

 

Four Crosses Barrow Cemetery, site 2, Llandysilio, Powys

Bronze Age element of excavated multi period barrow C14 dates. (CPAT SMR PRN 3604)

Excavation CPAT / 1984 Arable Pasture

Jones, G D B, 1979; Silvester, R J, 1992; Warrilow, W, Owen, G & Britnell, W, 1986;

 

Four Crosses Barrow Cemetery, site 2 (bronze age), Llandysilio, Powys

Excavated barrow. Contained by single ring ditch with single central grave with no surviving burial. (CPAT SMR PRN 50525)

Excavation CPAT / 1984

Gibson, A M, 1998; Jones, G D B, 1979; Warrilow, W, Owen, G & Britnell, W, 1986;

 

Four Crosses Barrow Cemetery, site 2 (bronze age), Llandysilio, Powys

Excavated barrow defined by ring ditch with 5 concentric stake circles surrounding a primary burial in a central pit within an irregular part-oval stake setting open to the NE. C14 date (CPAT SMR PRN 50559)

Excavation CPAT / 1984

Gibson, A M, 1998; Jones, G D B, 1979; Warrilow, W, Owen, G & Britnell, W, 1986;

 

Four Crosses Barrow Cemetery, site 3, Llandysilio, Powys

Excavated ring ditch (CPAT SMR PRN 5372)

Excavation CPAT / 1984 

Gibson, A M, 1998; Gibson, A M, 1998; Warrilow, W, Owen, G & Britnell, W, 1986;

 

Four Crosses Barrow Cemetery, site 4, Llandysilio, Powys

Excavated ring ditch (CPAT SMR PRN 3596)

Excavation CPAT / 1982 

Gibson, A M, 1998; Jones, G D B, 1979; RCAHM, 1976; Warrilow, W, Owen, G & Britnell, W, 1986;

 

Four Crosses Barrow Cemetery, site 5, Llandysilio, Powys

Excavated double concentric ring ditch with concentric internal stake circles. C14 dates. Pollen sampling site (CPAT SMR PRN 3600)

Excavation CPAT / 1983

Caseldine, A, 1990; Gibson, A & Kinnes, I, 1997; Gibson, A M, 1998; Warrilow, W, Owen, G & Britnell, W, 1986; Wimble, G, 1986;

 

Four Crosses Barrow Cemetery, site 6, Llandysilio, Powys

Excavated ring ditch. Central grave minimal structure. Pollen sampling site (CPAT SMR PRN 6423)

Excavation CPAT / 1984

Caseldine, A, 1990; Warrilow, W, Owen, G & Britnell, W, 1986; Wimble, G, 1986;

 

Four Crosses Barrow Cemetery, site 7, Llandysilio, Powys

Excavated barrow ring ditch encircling low area of residual mound C14 date (CPAT SMR PRN 50554)

Excavation CPAT / 1984-85

Gibson, A M, 1998; Gibson, A M, 1998; Warrilow, W, Owen, G & Britnell, W, 1986;

 

Gop Cairn, Trelawnyd and Gwaenysgor, Flintshire

Largest cairn in Wales, Summit has been lowered or flattened. Excavated by Boyd Dawkins 1886 and 1887 by sinking a shaft in the centre (CPAT SMR PRN 102207)

Excavation Boyd Dawkins / 1886

Boyd Dawkins, 1901; Boyd Dawkins, 1902; Boyd Dawkins, 1921; Brassil, K, 1986; Burnham, H, 1995; Davies, E, 1949; Lloyd, G, 1967;

 

Hendre Farm barrow, Halkyn, Flintshire

Natural mound containing inserted burials C14 dates. (CPAT SMR PRN 100231)

Excavation CPAT / 1989

Brassil, K, 1991; Brassil, K & Gibson, A, 1999; Brassil, K, Jones, N & Owen, W, 1989; Davies, E, 1949; Tasker, H N & Wilkinson, J L, 1995;

 

Hindwell Ash Barrow, Old Radnor, Powys

Excavated Barrow 3The turf built barrow was encircled by a ditch. C14 date. (CPAT SMR PRN 307)

Excavation Pye, W R and Cain, R / 1976

Excavation CPAT / 1993

Dunn, C J, 1965; Dunn, C J, 1974; Gibson, A, 1993; Gibson, A, 1998; Gibson, A, 1999; Gibson, A, 2000; Gibson, A, 2000;

 

Holt, Bronze Age burial site, Holt, Wrexham

Bronze Age cremation found during excavation of Roman barracks at Holt in 1909 Food Vessel, a second cinerary urn and a pygmy (CPAT SMR PRN 101257)

Excavation / 1909

Davies, E, 1929; Grimes, W F, 1930; RCAHM, 1914; Savory, H N, 1980;

 

Holywell Racecourse Tumulus I, Ysceifiog, Flintshire

Excavated barrow within Holywell Earth Circle. Primary and secondary burials (CPAT 1999). (CPAT SMR PRN 102386)

Excavation Fox / 1925

Burnham, H, 1995; Davies, E, 1949; Fox, C, 1926; Gibson, A, 1999; Hemp, W J, 1923; Roese, H E, 1985; Savory, H N, 1980;

 

Lan Fawr cairn III, Churchstoke, Powys

Small-scale excavations of apparent clearance cairn - collared urn and cremation. C14 dates (CPAT SMR PRN 17192)

Excavation / 1986

Britnell, W J, 1986; Britnell, W J, 1988; Britnell, W J, Martin, C H R & Hankinson, R, 2000; Gibson, A, 1998; Gibson, A M, 1998;

 

Llong Tumulus, Leeswood, Flintshire

Excavated barrow primary and secondary burials. Jet beads, flints (CPAT SMR PRN 100090)

Excavation Hayes, P / 1954-6

Excavation Lynch, F / 1983

Davies, E, 1949; Hayes, P, 1953; Hayes, P, 1957; Lynch, F, 1983; Savory, H N, 1957; Watson, K, 1965; Williams, C R, 1961;

 

Mynydd y Drum Ring Cairn, Ystradgynlais, Powys

Excavated ring cairn. C14 dates. Pollen sampling site(CPAT SMR PRN 6186)

Excavation CPAT / 1987

Dorling, P & Chambers, F M, 1990; Dorling, P J, 1987; RCAHMW, 1997; Thomas, D, 1995;

 

Pant-y-Dulath round barrow, Tremeirchion, Denbighshire

Excavated barrow. Primary burial in 'tree trunk coffin'. Secondaries with food vessels (CPAT SMR PRN 102118)

Excavation Hayes, P / 1957

Davies, E, 1949; Hayes, P, 1958; Hayes, P, 1996; Unknown, 1923; Unknown, 1957;

 

Pen y Fan Cairn, Llanfrynach, Powys

Cairn excavated in response to tourist destruction. Organics well preserved below cairn on OGS and within basal layers of turf mound. Small bronze hoard. C14 dates. Reconstructed. (CPAT SMR PRN 2389)

Excavation Crew, P / 1983

Excavation CPAT / 1990-1992

Gibson, A, 1990; Gibson, A, 1991; Gibson, A, 1992; Gibson, A, 1993; Gibson, A, 1997; Jones, P, 1978; Jones, P M & Palmer, K, 1983; RCAHMW, 1997;

 

Pennant Melangell Church (St Melangell), BA cremation, Llangynog, Powys

Prehistoric pits at the west end and beneath the tower of Melangell church. Filled with dense charcoal layer, charred plant remains and human cremated remains. C14 dates (CPAT SMR PRN 50677)

Excavation CPAT / 1990

Britnell, B, 1992; Gibson, A M, 1998; Thomas, D, 1992; Wessex Archaeology, 1994;

 

Tandderwen cropmark complex, cremation cemetery, Denbigh, Denbighshire

Five unenclosed cremation pits. Food Vessels. (CPAT SMR PRN 25239)

Excavation CPAT / 1986

Brassil, K S, Owen, W G & Britnell, W J, 1991;

 

Tandderwen cropmark complex, ring ditch I, Denbigh, Denbighshire

Large ring ditch containing stone lined pit with primary beaker and food vessel cremation. (CPAT SMR PRN 101777)

Excavation CPAT / 1988

Brassil, K & Owen, W G, 1988; Brassil, K S & Meredith, P J, 1986; Brassil, K S, Owen, W G & Britnell, W J, 1991;

 

Tandderwen cropmark complex, ring ditch III, Denbigh, Denbighshire

Elliptical ring ditch containing cremation in pit. (CPAT SMR PRN 101892)

Excavation CPAT / 1986

Brassil, K S & Meredith, P J, 1986; Brassil, K S, Owen, W G & Britnell, W J, 1991; Brassil, K S, Owen, W G & Britnell, W J, 1991;

 

Trelystan Round Barrows, Trewern, Powys

Bronze Age two-barrow cemetery dated between c1800 and 1500BC. Cremations in pits with Food Vessel, enlarged mounds retained by complex stake circles and orthostatic walls Multiple finds. C14 dates (CPAT SMR PRN 132)

Excavation CPAT / 1979

Bradley, R, 2000; Brassil, K & Gibson, A, 1999; Britnell, W, 1982; Moore-Colyer, R J, 1996; Musson, C R, 1984;

 

Upper Ninepence barrow, Old Radnor, Powys

Excavated barrow, Organic debris Overlying Neolithic house (see above). C14 dates (CPAT SMR PRN 305)

Excavation Unknown / 1966

Excavation CPAT / 1994

Dudd, S N, Evershed, R P & Gibson, A M, 1999; Dunn, C J, 1965; Dunn, C J, 1966; Dunn, C J, 1966; Dunn, C J, 1969; Dunn, C J, 1974; Gibson, A, 1994; Gibson, A, 1995; Gibson, A, 1995; Gibson, A, 1995; Gibson, A, 1998; Gibson, A, 1999; Gibson, A, 2000; Gibson, A & Donahue, R, 1997;

 

Ynys Hir Cairn, Trallong, Powys

Excavated turf-covered barrow containing two concentric rings of stones within outer kerb. Primary cremation burial found in pit in cairn centre. Grave goods found in pit to northeast. Adjacent to stone circle. (CPAT SMR PRN 848)

Excavation Dunning, G C / 1940

 

Ynys Hir Stone Circle, Trallong, Powys

Totally excavated stone circle originally constructed with 27 stones but only 14 stone now remain (OS 1976).

Excavation Dunning, G C / 1940

Burl, A, 2000; Dunning, G C, 1943; Grimes, W F, 1936; Grimes, W F, 1951; Morgan, W W, 1911; RCAHMW, 1997; Spicer, R D, 1979;

 

Ysgwennant barrow, Llansilin, Powys

Excavated barrow Burial with two beakers in pits.(CPAT SMR PRN 100990)

Excavation Day, W & Savory, H N / 1951-68

Clarke, D L, 1970; Davies, E, 1929; Day, W, 1963; Day, W, 1964; Day, W, 1965; Day, W, 1966; Day, W, 1967; Day, W & Savory, H N, 1972; RCAHM, 1914; Savory, H N, 1980; Wymer, J J, 1977;

 

Ysgwennant barrow, bronze age finds, Llansilin, Powys

Excavated round barrow. Two primary cremations and Beakers in pits cut into sand and a secondary cremation in an inverted urn. C14 date (CPAT SMR PRN 100993)

Aldhouse-Green, S, 1996; Clarke, D L, 1970; Davies, E, 1929; Day, W & Savory, H N, 1972; Gibson, A M, 1998; RCAHM, 1914; Savory, H N, 1980; Wymer, J J, 1977;

 

Ystrad Hynod barrow, Trefeglwys, Powys

Totallt excavated round barrow excavated. Primary and secondary cremations with accessories. Fallen stone indicates pre barrow activity. (CPAT SMR PRN 906)

Excavation Ap Simon, A M / 1965-66

Apsimon, A M, 1973; Gibson, A M, 1998; Hamer, E, 1872; Murphy, K, 1992;

RCAHM, 1911;

 

IRON AGE

 

Agriculture and Subsistence

 

New Pieces Field System, Bausley with Criggion, Powys

Series of rectangular fields sited between hillforts of The Breiddin and New Pieces 

Excavation O'Neil, B H St J / 1936

Collens, J, 1988; Musson, C R, 1977; O'Neil, B H St J, 1937;

 

Defence

 

Aberllynfi Gaer hillfort, Gwernyfed, Powys

Hillfort apparently overlying Neolithic settlement and with Romano-British activity. Part excavated

Excavation Conway Lloyd and Savory / 1951

 

Breiddin hillfort, Bausley with Criggion, Powys

Large multivallate hillfort with two and three ramparts on southeast. Significant excavation 1933-35 and 1969-75 revealing possible Mesolithic, late Neolithic, early Bronze Age, Iron Age, late Roman and possible Early Medieval activity. Round houses. Wooden finds. Environmental evidence C14 dates. (CPAT SMR PRN 1254)

Excavation O'Neil, B H St J / 1933-35

Excavation CPAT / 1969-75

Caseldine, A, 1990; Collens, J, 1988; Davies, J, 1999; Forde-Johnston, J, 1962; Gent, H, 1983; Gibson, A, 1995; Hughes, G, 1994; Leonard, J, Preshous, D, Roberts, M, Smyth, J & Train, C, 2000; Moore, J, 1990; Musson, C R, 1970; Musson, C R, 1971; Musson, C R, 1972; Musson, C R, 1974; Musson, C R, 1976; Musson, C R, 1984; Musson, C R, 1991; Musson, C R, Smith, A G & Girling, M, 1977; O'Neil, B H St J, 1973; Silvester, R J & Brassil, K S, 1991; Smith, A G & Green, C A, 1991;

 

Bryn Euryn Camp, Rhos-on-sea, Conwy

Hillfort with early medieval occupation

Excavation CPAT / 1989

Excavation GAT / 1997

Cadw, 1997; Condry, W M, 1981; Davies, E, 1929; Longley, D & Laing, L, 1997; RCAHM, 1914; Tucker, N, 1966;

 

Caer Caradog hillfort, Llanfihangel Glyn Myfyr, Conwy

Excavated univallate contour hillfort (CPAT SMR PRN 100690)

Excavation Smith, J A & Livens, R G / 1963-64

Burnham, H, 1995; Cadw, 1997; Davies, E, 1929; Lewis, S, 1842; Lhuyd, E, 1699; Livens, R G, 1963; Livens, R G, 1964; Livens, R G, 1964; Lloyd, J Y W, 1878; Pugh, E D, 1816; RCAHM, 1914; Smith, J A & Livens, R G, 1991;

 

Caer Estyn hillfort, Hope, Flintshire

Hillfort occupying summit of long hill, partially bivallate on north side, univallate for the rest of the circuit. (CPAT SMR PRN 101279)

Excavation CPAT / 1984

Davies, E, 1929; Fox, C, 1928; Fox, C, 1955; Pennant, T, 1810; RCAHM, 1914; Silvester, R J & Brassil, K S, 1991;

 

Coed y Gaer Hillfort, Llanfihangel Cwmdu with Bwlch and Cathedine, Powys

Univallate hillfort. Partly excavated. Roman re-occupation (CPAT SMR PRN 660)

Excavation Cardiff University / 1998 Pasture Woodland

Geophysics Cardiff University / 1998 Pasture Woodland

Fenton, R, 1917; Hogg, A H A, 1979; Jones, T & Bailey, J R, 1911; Lane, A, Macdonald, P & Young, T, 1998; RCAHMW, 1986; Savory, H N, 1950; Savory, H N, 1955;

 

Craig Rhiwarth Hillfort, Llangynog, Powys

Exceptionally large univallate drystone ramparted hillfort At least 170 hut sites apparent in interior (some orginally noted as ring cairns.) (CPAT SMR PRN 1465)

Excavation Sayce, R U / 1937

Survey CPAT / 1978

Burnham, H, 1995; Hemp, W J, 1943; Hogg, A H A, 1965; Jerman, H N, 1938; RCAHM, 1911; Richards, R, 1938; Robinson, G E, 1880; Roe & Crew, 1975; Roe & Crew, 1977; Roe, D, 1976; Sayce, R U, 1938; Silvester, R J, 1992; Wren, W J, 1968;

 

Dinorben hillfort, Abergele, Conwy

Promontory fort of 2ha. Guard chambers. Hut platforms Excavation prior to destruction by quarrying. C14 dates (CPAT SMR PRN 102000)

Excavation Gardner, W / 1912-22

Excavation Savory, H N / 1965-9

Excavation CPAT / 1983

Alcock, L, 1963; Brassil, K S, Brassil, K S, 1983; Brassil, K S, 1983; Brassil, K S, 1984; Brassil, K S, 1984; Cadw, 1997; Davies, J, 1999; Davies, W, 1982; Fenton, R, 1917; Gardner, W, 1912; Gardner, W, 1912; Gardner, W, 1913; Gardner, W, 1913; Gardner, W, 1915; Gardner, W, 1920; Gardner, W, 1921; Gardner, W, 1923; Gardner, W, 1923; Gardner, W, 1926; Gardner, W, 1927; Gardner, W, 1947; Guilbert, G, 1979; Guilbert, G, 1981; Guilbert, G C, 1977; Guilbert, G C, 1978; Guilbert, G C, 1979; Guilbert, G C, 1979; Guilbert, G C, 1979; Guilbert, G C, 1979; Guilbert, G C, 1980; Guilbert, G C, 1981; Hughes, G, 1994; Lhuyd, E, 1699; Megaw, J V S, Megaw, M R & Trett, R, 1992; Pennant, T, 1883; RCAHM, 1914; Savory, H N, 1957; Savory, H N, 1957; Savory, H N, 1958; Savory, H N, 1959; Savory, H N, 1961; Savory, H N, 1965; Savory, H N, 1967; Savory, H N, 1969; Savory, H N, 1970; Savory, H N, 1971; Savory, H N, 1971; Savory, H N, 1976; Savory, H N, 1976; Savory, H N, 1980; Silvester, R J & Brassil, K S, 1991; Unknown, 1949;

 

Ffridd Faldwyn Hillfort, Montgomery, Powys

Hillfort overlying possible Neolithic settlement. At least three structural phases of hillfort. Double palisaded enclosure. No bank or ditch. Entrance inturned. Double timber-laced earth ramparts. On line of earlier palisade. Possibility of one build. Inturned entrance at south. Stone revetted double rampart adding further 3.6 hectares to northwest of earlier enclosure. Complex entrance with outworks at southwest. Simple entrance to northeast. Hillfort possibly abandoned after fire. (CPAT SMR PRN 168)

Excavation O'Neil, B H St J / 1937-39

Britnell, W J, Martin, C H R & Hankinson, R, 2000; Burnham, H, 1995; Collens, J, 1988; Davies, J, 1999; Gardner, W, 1932; Gibson, A, 1992; Guilbert, G C, 1975; Higham, R & Barker, P, 2000; Hogg, A H A, 1965; Hogg, A H A, 1979; Kenyon, 1956; Leonard, J, Preshous, D, Roberts, M, Smyth, J & Train, C, 2000; O'Neil, B H St J, 1942; RCAHM, 1911; Silvester, R J, 1992; Spurgeon, C J, 1972; Thomas, D, 1998;

 

Llanymynech hillfort (Iron Age), Carreghofa, Powys

57 hectare hilltop enclosure. Salvage excavations Iron Age copper metal working, stone rampart, a ditch and metal-working debris. C14 dates Peat sampling from bog interior - late glacial (10270100 BP [CAR-1354] to Iron Age (230070 BP [CAR-1353] indicating considerable palaeoenvironmental potential Palynological and geochemical investigations in appears to indicate early mining activities. Iron Age burial. C14 dates (CPAT SMR PRN 50650)

Excavation CPAT / 1981

Excavation Jones, G D B / 1994

Evaluation CPAT / 1995

Evaluation CPAT / 1999

Watching brief CPAT / 1999

Watching brief CPAT / 1999

Watching brief CPAT / 2000

Watching brief CPAT / 2000

Barnwell, E L, 1870; Burnham, B C, 1995; Forde-Johnston, J, 1976; Fox, C & Hemp, W J, 1926; Hogg, A H A, 1979; Jones, B, 1988; Leonard, J, Preshous, D, Roberts, M, Smyth, J & Train, C, 2000; Martin, C, 1992; Moore, J, 1990; Moore, J, 1992; Musson, C R, 1981; Musson, C R & Northover, J P, 1989; Owen, W G, 1999; Owen, W G, 1999; Owen, W G, 1999; Owen, W G, 2000; Rogers, 1957; Silvester, R J, 1992;

 

Llwyn Bryn Dinas Hillfort, Llangedwyn, Powys

Univallate rubble rampart.  Bronze and iron working evidence from behind ramparts C14 dates (CPAT SMR PRN 101065)

Excavation CPAT / 1954ff

Excavation CPAT / 1983

Davies, E, 1929; Musson, C R, 1983; Musson, C R, 1983; Musson, C R, 1983; Musson, C R, Britnell, W J, Northover, J P, & Salter C, 1992; RCAHM, 1914;

 

Moel Hiraddug hillfort, Dyserth, Denbighshire

Roughly oval enclosure of 10 hectares. Circular and four-post structures excavated in the interior. Two IA inhumations C14 dates. (CPAT SMR PRN 102057)

Excavation Bevan Evans / 1960

Excavation CPAT / 1979-80

Bevan-Evans, M, 1961; Bevan-Evans, M, 1964; Bevan-Evans, M, 1964; Bevan-Evans, M, 1966; Brassil, K S, 1979; Brassil, K S, 1980; Brassil, K S, 1982; Brassil, K S, Guilbert, G C, Livens, R G, Stead, W H, & Bevan-Evans, M, 1982; Burnham, H, 1995; Davies, E, 1949; Davies, J L, 1970; Davies, J L, 1970; Davies, J L, 1971; Davies, J L, 1972; Davies, J L & Bevan-Evans, M, 1969; Davis, C, 1999; Edwards, I, 1970; Forde Johnston, J, 1976; Gage, M A, 1884; Gent, H, 1983; Grimes, W F, 1951; Guilbert, G C, 1977; Guilbert, G C, 1979; Guilbert, G C, 1980; Guilbert, G C, 1982; Hemp, W J, 1928; Hogg, A H A, 1975; Houlder, C, 1961; Kendrick, T D & Hawkes, 1932; Leeds, E T, 1933; Murphy, K, 1992; Savory, H N, 1973; Savory, H N, 1976; Savory, H N, 1976; Stead, I M, 1968; Stead, W H, 1961; Varley, W J, 1964; Walls, L J & Bevan-Evans, M, 1968;

 

Moel y Gaer Rhosesmor hillfort, Iron Age, Halkyn, Flintshire

Multi-vallate hillfort. Inturned entrance. Major excavations in 1972 revealed evidence for timber-framed rampart enclosing firstly, stake-ring round houses and four posters followed by rectangular houses. C14 dates. (CPAT SMR PRN 100296)

Excavation Guilbert, G / 1973ff

Burnham, H, 1995; Davies, E, 1949; Edwards, T, 1832; Forde-Johnston, J, 1964; Gent, H, 1983; Guibert, G & Elliott, L, 1999; Guilbert, G, 1972; Guilbert, G, 1973; Guilbert, G, 1982; Guilbert, G C, 1973; Guilbert, G C, 1973; Guilbert, G C, 1974; Guilbert, G C, 1974; Guilbert, G C, 1975; Guilbert, G C, 1975; Guilbert, G C, 1975; Guilbert, G C, 1976; Guilbert, G C, 1976; Guilbert, G C, 1977; Guilbert, G C, 1978; Guilbert, G C, 1978; Guilbert, G C, 1979; Guilbert, G C, 1981; Lhuyd, E, 1909; Lloyd, E, 1695; Lloyd, G, 1955; Moore, D, 2000; Muir, R, 2000; Pennant, T, 1883; RCAHM, 1912; Savory, H N, 1976; Savory, H N, 1980; Stanford, S C, 1980; Unknown, 1923;

 

Twyn Llechfaen Hillfort, Llanfrynach, Powys

Excavated hillfort. Excavation revealed hut floors near the centre and the entrance together with Iron Age

Pottery dating to C3rd/4th BC, slingstones, animal bones (CPAT SMR PRN 620)

Excavation Savory, H N / 1959

Hogg, A H A, 1979; Hogg, A H A, 1982; RCAHMW, 1986; Savory, H N, 1961; Savory, H N, 1971;

 

Domestic

 

Caersws Causewayed Enclosure, Caersws, Powys

Possible circular enclosure comprising a 200m length of single bank and external ditch both being interrupted by at least three causeways Strongly resembles a Neolithic causewayed enclosure though 1991 trial excavations produced Iron Age C14 date from waterlogged wood. Environmental samples.

Excavation CPAT / 1991

Geophysics Stratascan / 1992

Barker, P A, 1993; Caseldine, A, 1993; Jones, N, 1993; Jones, N W, 1991; Jones, N W, 1992; Jones, N W, 1993;

 

Collfryn enclosure, Llansantffraid, Powys

Four ditched enclosure Excavation revealed Iron Age round houses and four-post buildings C14 dates. (CPAT SMR PRN 50217)

Excavation CPAT / 1980-82(/ /)

Britnell, W, 1980; Britnell, W, 1989; Grew, 1981;

 

Four Crosses Barrow Cemetery, site 2 (Iron age), Llandysilio, Powys

Iron Age hearth set on edge of barrow (CPAT SMR PRN 50526)

Excavation CPAT / 1984 Arable Pasture

Warrilow, W, Owen, G & Britnell, W, 1986;

 

Mount Pleasant enclosure, Llandyssil, Powys

Double-ditched enclosure.  Excavation identified rampart details and possible four post structure C14 dates. (CPAT SMR PRN 7500)

Excavation CPAT / 1994

Thomas, D, 1994;

 

Prestatyn, Melyd Avenue settlement (Iron Age), Prestatyn, Denbighshire

Excavations May-September 1985 located round house with porched entrance and multi-phased drainage gully. Possible animal pen. Various other working areas and infant burial. C14 date (CPAT SMR PRN 102199)

Excavation CPAT / 1984

Blockley, K, 1986; Blockley, K, 1986; Blockley, K, 1989; Thomas, D, 1992;

 

 

 

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