A Research Framework for the Archaeology of Wales

East and Northeast Wales – Palaeolithic and Mesolithic, key sites

22/12/2003

 

 

PALAEOLITHIC

 

Domestic

 

Bontnewydd Cave, Cefnmeiriadog, Denbighshire

Cave site containing evidence of occupation (possibly Neanderthal) dating back in excess of 128000 years. (CPAT SMR PRN 102132)

Excavation Aldhouse-Green / 1984

Excavation Boyd Dawkins / C19th

Aldhouse-Green, S et al, 1996; Burnham, H, 1995; Davies, E, 1929; Davies, J, 1999; Gibson, A M, 1996; Green, H S, 1978; Green, H S, 1980; Green, H S, 1981; Green, H S, 1981; Green, H S, 1983; Green, H S, 1984; Green, H S, 1986; Green, H S & Currant, A P, 1982; Green, H S & Walker, E, 1991; Green, H S et al, 1981; Green, H S et al, 1989; Green, S, 1985; Green, S, 1987; Green, S, 1988; Grimes, W F, 1951; Hicks, H, 1886; Hughes, T M, 1887; Jacobi, R M, 1980; Livingston, H J, 1985; RCAHM, 1914; Stanley, E, 1832; Unknown, 1874; Valdemar, A E, 1970; Valdemar, A E & Jones, R D, 1970;

 

Cae Gronw Cave, Cefnmeiriadog, Denbighshire

Pleistocene and recent fauna from Cae Gronw cave. Excavated NMW 1985. (CPAT SMR PRN 19412)

Excavation Green, H S / 1985

Aldhouse-Green, S et al, 1996; Green, H S, 1986;

 

Cae-Gwyn Cave, Tremeirchion, Denbighshire

Cave extensively investigated from 1883-87. Artefacts found mostly just outside the entrance dated to middle Aurignacian period to middle Aurignacian period. (CPAT SMR PRN 102159)

Excavation Hicks, H / 1883-87

Campbell, J B, 1977; Davies, E, 1949; Garrod, D A E, 1926;  Hicks, H, 1886; Jackson, J W, 1932; RCAHM, 1912; Taylor, J A, 1980; Taylor, J A, 1980; Valdemar, A E & Jones, R D, 1970; Wheeler, R E M, 1925;

 

Ffynnon Beuno Cave, Tremeirchion, Denbighshire

Cave complex excavated in 1885.  Occupational evidence included Aurignacian and proto-Solutrean flint work plus Pleistocene fauna. (CPAT SMR PRN 102158)

Excavation Hicks, H / 1885

Campbell, J B, 1977; Davies, E, 1949; Davies, J, 1999; Garrod, D A E, 1926; Grimes, W F, 1951; Hicks, H, 1886; RCAHM, 1912; Valdemar, A E & Jones, R D, 1970; Wheeler, R E M, 1925;

 

Gop Cave (Palaeolithic), Trelawnyd and Gwaenysgor, Flintshire

Faunal remains from shelter and cave dated to Pleistocene. (CPAT SMR PRN 102262)

Boyd Dawkins, 1902; Boyd Dawkins, 1912; Davies, E, 1949; Glenn, T A, 1913;

 

Grithig Cave, Tawe-uchaf, Powys

Cave containing Palaeolithic fauna(CPAT SMR PRN 1519)

Excavation Unknown / 1950

RCAHMW, 1997

 

Gwaenysgor Cave, Trelawnyd and Gwaenysgor, Flintshire

Cave containing animal bones of Pleistocene and post-Pleistocene and possible Neolithic finds (CPAT SMR PRN 19107)

Excavation Jackson, J W / 1950-60

Valdemar, A E & Jones, R D, 1970;

 

Lynx Cave, Palaeolithic, Llanarmon-yn-ial, Denbighshire

Small tunnel cave excavated by Blore. Flint work probably dateable to the Creswellian or Cheddarian period of the upper Palaeolithic. No Pleistocene faunal evidence recovered. (CPAT SMR PRN 100948)

Excavation Bore, J / 1962-4

Bonsall, C J, 1977; Bramwell, D, 1963; Bramwell, D, 1966; Campbell, J B, 1977; Valdemar, A E & Jones, R D, 1970;

 

Monument (by form)

 

New Radnor, The Porth, excavation 1991-92, Powys

Palaeolithic shouldered point of upper Palaeolithic date made of black translucent flint with a thick white patina, from excavation of Medieval site. Dated to late-glacial interstadial and before the Younger Dryas stadial (13,00-11,800BP). (CPAT SMR PRN 26795)

Excavation CPAT / 1991

Jones, N, 1993; Jones, N W, 1991; Jones, N W, 1992;

 

Penwyllt cave, Tawe-uchaf, Powys

Faunal finds from area of cave.  Excavations of 1926 (CPAT SMR PRN 19410)

Excavation Stevens, P G / 1926

 

 

MESOLITHIC

 

Domestic

 

Collfryn enclosure (Mesolithic phase), Llansantffraid, Powys

Mesolithic activity beneath Iron Age enclosure (CPAT SMR PRN 70910)

Excavation CPAT / 1980-82

Britnell, W, 1989;

 

Four Crosses Barrow Cemetery, site 2 (Mesolithic), Llandysilio, Powys

Possible occupation attested by C14 dates beneath barrow. (CPAT SMR PRN 50523)

Excavation CPAT / 1984

Warrilow, W, Owen, G & Britnell, W, 1986;

 

Lynx Cave, Mesolithic, Llanarmon-yn-ial, Denbighshire

Mesolithic and earlier activity in cave.  Possible Mesolithic human remains (CPAT SMR PRN 100949)

Visit CCC / 1981

Bonsall, C J, 1977; Bramwell, D, 1963; Bramwell, D, 1966; Campbell, J B, 1977; Valdemar, A E & Jones, R D, 1970;

 

Nant Hall Road, flint knapping site, Prestatyn, Denbighshire

A flint knapping site was discovered during excavation of shell middens - probable Mesolithic occupation (CPAT SMR PRN 26875)

Excavation CPAT / 1992

Thomas, D, 1992;

 

Nant Hall Road, shell midden I, Prestatyn, Denbighshire

Shell midden recorded during trial excavation and environmental sampling by CPAT. C14 date of 470070 BP (CPAT SMR PRN 17396)

Frost, P, 1997; Thomas, D, 1992;

 

Nant Hall Road, shell midden II, Prestatyn, Denbighshire

Shell midden recorded during trial excavation and environmental sampling by CPAT. C14 date of 489080 BP (CPAT SMR PRN 17395)

Frost, P, 1997; Thomas, D, 1992;

 

Plas Heaton Cave, Henllan, Denbighshire

Cave occupation site (CPAT SMR PRN 100570)

Council for British Archaeology, 1977; Davies, E, 1929; Davies, E, 1931; Dawkins, W B, 1874;

Rhuddlan bypass, excavation 1996, prehistoric site, Rhuddlan, Denbighshire

Excavation during construction of the Rhuddlan bypass identified scatters of flint and chert flakes in a context of brown clay layer containing gravel, the occasional charcoal fleck and rounded stones. Evidence of some disturbance due to ploughing. Timbers were noted in the upper grey clay of a borrow pit nearby as were hazel nuts and snail shells. The largest timber was 3.66m long. One was said to have had a pointed end but it is unclear if this was manmade (CPAT SMR PRN 35030)

Excavation Giffords / 1996

Unpublished

 

Waun Fignen Felin find scatter, Llywel, Powys

Discrete flint scatters revealed by continuing peat erosion. Excavation showed late Mesolithic possible working area (with C14 date) and possible man-made features. Early and late Mesolithic flint types from subsequent excavation.

Excavation CPAT & Berridge PJ / 1979

Excavation CPAT & Berridge PJ / 1980

Excavation CPAT & Berridge PJ / 1981

Barton, R N E et al, 1995; Berridge, P J, 1979; Berridge, P J, 1980; Berridge, P J, 1981; Caseldine, A, 1990; Cloutman, E, 1983; Dorling, P, 1991; RCAHMW, 1997; Simmons, I G, 1996;

 

Industrial

 

Llyn Aled Isaf flint scatter, Llansannan, Conwy

Extensive flint working area revealed on foreshore of Aled Isaf reservoir (CPAT SMR PRN 101313)

Survey CPAT / 1989(/ /)

Brassil, K, 1989; Clwyd Archaeology Service, 1995;

 

Rhuddlan (Hendre), Mesolithic, Rhuddlan, Denbighshire

Extensive flint working areas (CPAT SMR PRN 102571)

Excavation Miles / 1978

Manley, J F, 1978; Manley, J F & Healey, E, 1982; Messham, J R, Manley, J F & Morgan, D, 1980

 

Monument (by form)

 

Breiddin hillfort, phase 1 finds (Mesolithic), Bausley with Criggion, Powys

Mesolithic flints from pre-hillfort phase (1969-75 excavations) probably represents occasional visitation rather than formal occupation (CPAT SMR PRN 50052)

Excavation Musson / 1969-75

Musson, C R, 1974; Musson, C R, 1991;

 

New Radnor, The Porth, excavation 1991-92, Mesolithic-BA finds, New Radnor, Powys

Mesolithic and/or Neolithic/BA flints from medieval excavation.

Excavation CPAT / 1991

 

Two Tumps Barrow west, excavation 1926, finds, Kerry, Powys

Microlithic flakes found under barrow Mesolithic origin disputed (CPAT SMR PRN 50000)

Excavation Daniel / 1925

Daniel, J E, Evans & Lewis, 1927; Spurgeon, C J, 1964; Wainwright, F T, 1963;

 

Ystrad Hynod barrow, Mesolithic finds, Trefeglwys, Powys

Three Mesolithic finds in gravel subsoil beneath barrow PRN 606. (CPAT SMR PRN 50471)

Apsimon, A M, 1973;

 

 

 

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