A Research Framework for the Archaeology of Wales

Southeast Wales – Medieval, key sites

22/12/2003

 

 

Towns

 

Soulsby's Towns of Medieval Wales was published in 1983, during a period when a number of major investigations of medieval towns were on going. The completion of these projects and the considerable amount of developer-funded work requires considerable up dating and reconsideration of the archaeology of the medieval town of Wales.

Soulsby I 1983 The Towns of Medieval Wales Chichester

Carter H 1966 The Towns of Wales Cardiff

Griffiths RA 1978 Boroughs of Medieval Wales Cardiff

 

ABERGAVENNY (SO 299 141)

Walled town with castle founded on site of a Roman fort. No indication of early medieval occupation of site. Excavations in 1960-70s by Ashmore PJ & FM, Radcliffe F & Knight JK limited reports on work published in 1969 and 1973. Overall summary by Olding F 1998 not published. Most work recent work developer funded and small scale being centred on individual burgage plots.

Courtney P 1994 Medieval and Later Usk Cardiff

Radcliffe F & Knight JK 1969 Excavations at Abergavenny 1962 - 69: Medieval and Later Monmouthshire Antiq

2, 65-103

Ashmore PJ & FM 1973 Excavations at Abergavenny Orchard Site 1972 Monmouthshire Antiq 3, 104 -110

Olding F 1998 Abergavenny: A Historic Landscape Dba

GGAT 1994 Monk Street. Abergavenny

GGAT 1995 Land Adjacent To Beili Priordy, Abergavenny Fe

Cotswold 1995 Ross Road, Abergavenny Dba

GGAT 1995 75 Hereford Road, Abergavenny Fe

GGAT 1995 Nidra House, 13 Nevill Street, Abergavenny Fe

GGAT 1996 Lloyds Bank, 54-55 Cross Street, Abergavenny Wb

Monmouth Archaeology 1999 6 High Street, Abergavenny Fe

Monmouth Archaeology 1999 6 High Street, Abergavenny Wb

Channel Arch 1999 Castle Street Car Park, Abergavenny Exc

GGAT 2000 Renovations At 23 a Cross Street, Abergavenny Wb

Monmouth Archaeology 2001 29 Castle Street, Abergavenny Wb Monmouth Archaeology 2001 18-20 Cross Street, Abergavenny Wb Cambrian Archaeological Projects 2001 21 Frogmore Street, Abergavenny Wb Monmouth Archaeology 2001 29 Castle Street, Abergavenny Fe

 

CARDIFF (ST 183 763)

Walled town with castle probably founded on site of Roman settlement although no evidence of early medieval occupation. Documentary history by Rees 1969 and Walker. The archaeological summary in Soulsby remained relevant until recent work at the Old Brewery and 911 Castle Street by GGAT (unpublished work on-going) produced substantial new evidence.

Rees W 1969 Cardiff: A History of the City Cardiff

Webster P 1977 Excavations in Quay Street, Cardiff 1973 - 1974 Archaeol Cambrensis 86 88 -115

Walker DG 1978 Cardiff in Griffiths RA (ed) 1978 Boroughs of Medieval Wales 112-3

Mathews JH 1898 -1903 Cardiff Records

GGAT 1996 The National Stadium, Cardiff Dba

CGMS Queens Street Dba

Cgms 1998 43-49 Queen Street, Cardiff Dba

Cgms 1998 53-77 Queen Street, Cardiff Dba

GGAT 1992 David Morgan Ltd, Bakers Row Development, Cardiff

GGAT 1991 Trial Excavations At The Queen Street Centre, Cardiff

GGAT 1999 National Stadium, Cardiff: Westgate Plaza, Stage 1: Site Clearance And Enabling Works Wb

Makepeace 2001 Elgin House, St Mary's Street. The Queens And Royal Garage, 27 Westgate Street, Cardiff Dba

GGAT 2001 9-11 Castle Street, Cardiff Fe

GGAT 2001 Bute Park, Cardiff Wb

GGAT 2002 9-11 Castle Street, Cardiff Fe

 

CHEPSTOW (ST 535 940)

Walled town with castle sited on bend of River Wye. Possibly built on site of Roman settlement, castle is early (c. AD 1067) and town probably founded at similar period. Documentary mainly in numerous booklets by Ivor Waters, major excavations by Shoesmith in early 1970s published in 1991. Both are summarised by Soulsby. Most recent works developer funded small-scale targeted on individual sites. Evidence now suggesting that southern part of defended area unoccupied. Courtney 1994 presented an alternative view of town development.

Courtney P 1994 Medieval and Later Usk Cardiff

Wood JG 1910 The Lordship Castle and Town of Chepstow Newport

Shoesmith R 1991 Excavations at Chepstaw 1973-1974 Cambrian Archaeol Assoc Monographs 4

Locock MP 1994 Excavations behind Bank Street, Chepstow, 1992. Monmouthshire Antiquary 11, 57-70.

GGAT 1990 Station Road, Chepstow Fe

BUFAU 1992 3 St Ann Street, Chepstow Fe

GGAT 1992 Coltharts Garage, Chepstow Fe

GGAT 1993 Chepstow Flood Alleviation Scheme Dba

BUFAU 1998 Station Road, Chepstow Wb

Monmouth Archaeology 1998 8 High Street, Chepstow Wb

Monmouth Archaeology 1999 The Beaufort Hotel, Chepstow Fe

Monmouth Archaeology 1999 14 St Mary Street, Chepstow Fe

 

COWBRIDGE (SS 993 747)

Walled town not on major navigable river built on site of Roman settlement. Documentary and survey by Robinson 1980, extensive archaeological work by GGAT in 1980s published by Evans and Parkhouse 1996. Recent works small-scale developer funded on individual sites. One larger excavation, lla Westgate (AC Archaeology 2001) produced little extra information on medieval period.

Robinson DM 1980 Cowbridge. The Archaeology and Topography of a Small Market Town in the Vale of

Glamorgan Swansea

Evans EM & Parkhouse J 1996 Excavations in Cowbridge, South Glamorgan, 1977-1988 (British Archaeological

Reports BAR 245)

AC Archaeology 2001 1 la Westgate Street, Cowbridge, Vale of Glamorgan: Assessment Report on the Results of the Excavation with Proposals for Further Analysis, Publication and deposition of Archive.

GGAT 1996 27 Westgate, Cowbridge Fe

GGAT 1996 Old Cinema, Eastgate, Cowbridge Wb

GGAT 1996 Burradoo, Westgate, Cowbridge Wb

GGAT 1996 The Nook, Westgate, Cowbridge Fe

GGAT 1996 27 Westgate, Cowbridge Fe

GGAT 1998 Sewer Pipe Excavation, Holy Cross Church, Cowbridge Wb

Monmouth Archaeology 1999 1-3 Westgate Street, Cowbridge Fe/Wb

Marches Archaeology 2000 The Cattle Market, Cowbridge Dba

Monmouth Archaeology 2002 Wolfe Close, Cowbridge Wb

 

MONMOUTH (SO 507 127)

Walled town with castle sited at confluence of Rivers Wye and Monnow. Town sited on Roman settlement (form unknown) and may have early medieval precursor but actual physical evidence is lacking (one sherd "Chester Ware" pottery some undated features). Documentary evidence well researched especially by Kissack. Summary of archaeology by Soulsby out of date following major excavations in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Shoesmith's excavations close to the Wye bridge published 1990, GGAT excavations on Monnow Street published 2001 with results of environmental work included. Considerable further excavation on Monnow Street by Steve Clarke and Monmouth Archaeological Society only published in short interim statements in Archaeology in Wales. Numerous developer funded works undertaken since 1990 with reports deposited in SMR.

Kissack KE 1974 Medieval Monmouth Monmouth

Kissack, K 1996 The Lordship, Parish and Borough of Monmouth Hereford :

Courtney P 1994 Medieval and Later Usk

Marvell AG (ed) 2001 Excavations in Monnow Street Oxford

Shoesmith R 1990 Excavations in Monmouth 1973 Monmouthshire Antiq 6, 1-15

Clarke S 1987 Monnow Street, Monmouth Archaeol Wales 27, 29-31

Clarke S 1990 Recent Archaeological Work in Monmouth, Gwent Archaeol Wales 30, 25-27

Jackson R & P 1991 Archaeological Work in Monmouth in 1991 Archaeol Wales 31, 7-9

Clarke S, Jackson R & P 1992 Archaeological Evidence for Monmouth's Roman and early Medieval Defences

Archaeol Wales 32, 1-2

Monmouth Archaeology 1992 St James' Garage, Monmouth

GGAT 1992 Monmouth Town Pumping Station, Monmouth

MAS 1992 Goldwire Lane, Overmonnow, Monmouth

GGAT 1993 Excavations At The Waitrose Development Site, Monmouth

Monmouth Archaeology 1993 Gloucestershire House, Monmouth

GGAT 1993 Waitrose Development Site, 110-118 Monnow Street, Monmouth

GGAT 1994 Waitrose Development Site, 110-114 Monnow Street, Monmouth: Watching Brief

GGAT 1994 37 Monnow Street, Monmouth

Monmouth Archaeology 1994 Land Off Rockfield Road, Monmouth Desk-based Assessment

GGAT 1994 Monmouth Police Station, Glendower Street, Monmouth Fe

Bristol and Region 1995 102 Monnow Street, Monmouth Fe

GGAT 1995 Monnow Bridge Caravan Park, Drybridge Road, Monmouth Fe

GGAT 1995 Monmouth Police Station, Glendower Street, Monmouth (March) Wb

GGAT 1995 Monmouth Police Station, Glendower Street, Monmouth (May) Wb

Dyfed 1995 Upgrading Of The Cattle Market & Cinderhill Street Carparks, Monmouth Wb

Dyfed 1996 Upgrading Of The Cattle Market & Cinderhill Street Carparks, Monmouth Wb

GGAT 1996 Borough Arms, Monnow Street, Monmouth Wb

Monmouth Archaeology 1996 80-82 Monnow Street, Monmouth Fe

GGAT 1996 Excavations At The Waitrose Development Site, Monmouth Exc

GGAT 1996 Monmouth Town Sps Advance Works, Monmouth Wb

Monmouth Archaeology 1996 Dixton Road, Monmouth Fe

Monmouth Archaeology 1997 3 Glendower Street, Monmouth Fe

Monmouth Archaeology 1997 Overmonnow Garage, Monmouth Fe

Monmouth Archaeology 1998 61-63 Monnow Street, Monmouth Fe

GGAT 1998 Construction Of A Fence West Of Little Castle House, Monmouth Castle Wb

Bristol and Region 1998 Monmouth School. Glendower Street, Monmouth Fe

GGAT 1998 Land Adjacent To Nailer's Lane, Monmouth Fe

Monmouth Archaeology 1998 The Green Dragon Inn, Monmouth Fe

Monmouth Archaeology 1998 Overmonnow Garage, Monmouth Wb

Monmouth Archaeology 1998 Monmouth Comprehensive School Wb

Monmouth Archaeology 1998 The Grange, Monmouth School

Monmouth Archaeology 1998 Hamilton House, 4 Glendower Street, Monmouth Fe

Oxford Archaeology 1998 The King's Head, Agincourt Square, Monmouth Wb

Monmouth Archaeology 1999 3 Glendower Street, Monmouth Wb

Monmouth Archeology 1999 The Victoria Diary, Monmouth Fe

Monmouth Archaeology 2000 1-3 Monnow Bridge, Monmouth Wb

Bristol and Region 2000 The Walled Garden Of Drybridge House, Monmouth Fe

Monmouth Archaeology 2000 St James' Garage, Monmouth

Gloucester CC 2000 Watery Lane, Monmouth Wb

Monmouth Archaeology 2000 The Punch House And The Bull, Agincourt Square, Monmouth Fe

Monmouth Archaeology 2001 Congregational Church, Monmouth Wb

Monmouth Archaeology 2001 Rockfteld Road, Monmouth Wb

Monmouth Archaeology 2001 66-68 Monnow Street, Monmouth Fe

Monmouth Archaeology 2002 6 St John Street, Monmouth Fe

 

SWANSEA (SS 657 930)

Walled town with castle on estuary of River Tawe. No physical evidence for Roman or early medieval settlement. Documentary history by Morris and Robinson 1971. Limited excavations (mainly on defences and hospital site) in past summarised in Evans 1983. Recent work especially in Wind Street may alter current views especially if proposed excavations occur.

Morris B Swansea Town and Castle

Evans EM 1983 Swansea Castle and the Medieval Town Swansea

Robinson WRB 1971 Medieval Swansea in Pugh TB (ed) 1971 Glamorgan County History Vol III The Middle

Ages

GGAT 1995 Wind Street, Swansea Dba

Cambria Archaeology 1999 1-4 Castle Square, Swansea Dba

GGAT 2000 215-221 High Street, Swansea Dba

Sell SH 1993 Excavations at St.Mary's Swansea Archaeol Wales 33, 1-15

Lightfoot K White Walls Gower

Morris B Various in Gower

GGAT 1988 Proposed North Dock Development, Swansea Unpublished GGAT Contracts Report

GGAT 1991 1-7 Princess Way, Swansea

GGAT 1993 The Strand, Swansea

GGAT 1995 14-17 St Mary's Street, Swansea Fe

Oxford 1998 57-58 Wind Street, Swansea Wb

Marches Arch 1998 The Old Cross Keys, St Mary's Street. Swansea Wb

GGAT 2000 61 Wind Street, Swansea Wb

Archaeological Investigations 2000 Land Between Wind Street And York Street, Swansea Fe

Cambrian Archaeological Projects 2001 Wind Street, Swansea Wb

Cambrian Archaeological Projects 2002 High Street, Swansea Wb

 

TRELLECH (SO 500 053)

Undefended town on upland plateau, unusually not sited on a major river. Castle abandoned early but town is a major centre in the 13th century possibly being military arsenal for the de Clares. Archaeological and documentary evidence for major decline commencing at beginning of 14th century possibly caused by death of Gilbert de Clare at Bannockburn and subsequent partition of his estates. Documentary evidence has been researched by Ho well and Price and considerable archaeological excavation has taken place, particularly by Ray Howell and University of Wales Newport and by Monmouth Archaeology. There are currently some disputes on layout and development of the town and environs.

Price FGH Trellech, a Parish of Monmouthshire. Anthrop. Inst9, 51-53

Soulsby IN 1982 Trellech: a Decayed Borough of Medieval Gwent Monmouthshire Antiq 4(3-4), 41-4

Howell R 1995 Excavations at Trellech 1991 -1993 Monmouthshire Antiq XI,

Howell R 2000 Excavations at Trellech 1996-1999 Monmouthshire Antiq XVI, 131-145

Wilson JC 1998 Trelech: A New Location for the Old Town Archaeol Wales 38, 67-70

Monmouth Archaeology 1994 The Lion Inn, Trellech

Monmouth Archaeology 1998 The Lion Inn, Trellech Wb

Monmouth Archaeology 1998 Trellech Surgery, Trellech Wb

Monmouth Archaeology 1998 Court Farm Bungalow, Trellech Fe

Thames Valley 1998 Catbrook Road, Trellech Fe

Monmouth Archaeology 1999 Catbrook Road, Trellech Fe

Monmouth Archaeology 1999 Trellech Farm, Trellech Fe

Monmouth Archaeology 2000 The Lion Inn, Trellech Fe

Monmouth Archaeology 2000 Chi Rho, Greenway Lane, Trellech Wb

Monmouth Archaeology 2001 Barn Three, Trelech Farm, Trelech Wb

 

Rural and Agriculture

 

The RCAHMW Glamorgan Inventory III Part II contained the results of considerable fieldwork on the rural sites of Glamorgan. The majority of the following sites therefore are either not covered by that work or have been the subject of significant fieldwork or publication since the publication of the inventory.

 

BARRY(ST102671)

Scattered group of homesteads centred at Cwm Barry occupied from 12 to second half of 14 century. Excavated by Barry and Vale Archaeological Group (1962) and GGAT (1977) report Thomas & Dowdell G published in 1987. No known unpublished work

Thomas HJ 1984 Castle, Church and Village, Medieval Barry in Moore D 1984 Barry The Centenary Book Barry

Thomas HJ & Dowdell G 1987 A shrunken medieval village at Barry, Glamorgan Archaeol Cambrensis 136, 94-

137

Thomas HJ & Davies G 1974 A medieval house site at Barry, Glamorgan Trans Cardiff Natur Soc 96, 4-22

 

CEFN DRUM (SN 726 007)

A group of rectangular and square huts with associated enclosures on high ground at the end of Mynnyd Drumau. Surveyed by RCAHMW and published in Glamorgan Inventory III Part II. Research project being undertaken by Jonathan Kissock and the University of Wales: Newport.

Kissock, J, 1996, Cefn Drum, Pontardulais, Archaeol Wales 36, 88

Kissock, J, 1998. Excavation of a house platform on Cefn Drum, Pontardulais, Archaeol Wales 38, 71-3

N Phillips 2000 The Cefn Drum Research Project: Survey S

J Kissock 2000 The Cefn Drum Research Project: Medieval Settlement And Subsistence In The Uplands: Interim

Report Exc

COGAN (ST 169 706)

Deserted nucleated village (Church of St.Peter and one farm survive). Surveyed by RCAHMW and published in Glamorgan Inventory III Part II. Desk-top assessment by GGAT 1990 further developer funded work including field evaluation by GGAT, Wessex Archaeology and Cambria Archaeology with relevant reports in SMR.

GGAT 1990 Cogan Hall: Desk-based Assessment

Wessex 1994 Cogan Hall Farm, Penarth

GGAT 1997 Old Cogan Hall Farm, Penarth Wb

Wessex 1998 Cogan Hall Farm, Penarth Exc

Cambria Archaeology 1998 St Peter's Church, Old Cogan, Penarth Fe

GGAT 2002 Old Cogan Hall Farm, Penarth Wb

 

COSMESTON (ST 175 688)

Deserted village excavated by GGAT in late 1980s, some later work by Wessex Archaeology. Some buildings re-built on site to form a tourist centre. Publications are chiefly guidebooks to the reconstructed village and interim reports. A large excavation archive exists (now with the Vale of Glamorgan Council) but currently no plans for research or publication exist.

Newman, R & Parkhouse J 1983 Excavations at Cosmeston, South Glamorgan Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeol Trust

LtdAnnu Rep for 1982-3 1-13

Newman, R & Parkhouse, J 1985 Cosmeston excavations, 1983-84 Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeol Trust Ltd Annu

Rep part 2, 1983-4,31-51,

Newman, R 1988 Cosmeston Medieval Village Swansea

Newman, R & Parkhouse, J 1989 The Cosmeston Medieval Village Project: Hist Archaeol Rev 4, 5-15

Sell S H 1982 Excavations at Cosmeston, near Sully, South Glamorgan' Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeol Trust Annu

Rep 1981-2, 32-6

Wessex 1993 Excavations At Cosmeston Medieval Village, Penarth

 

LLANTARNAM (ST309 930)

Deserted village in close proximity to a Cistercian Abbey, that appears to have started in 13th century and finally abandoned in 18th century possibly to allow park to the house (the successor to the Abbey) to be created. Excavation in 1980s by Mein in advance of construction of water storage lagoons, by GGAT in early 1990s in advance of the construction of a major road and further works in vicinity by Birmingham

University, Wessex Archaeology and Cambrian Archaeological Projects in late 1990s. Reports on all works in SMR but there is no overall published report.

Mein AG 1982 A deserted village and other remains, Llantarnam Abbey, near Cwmbran, Gwent Anna Rep

Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeol Trust 1981-2, 47-52

GGAT 1990 A4042 Newport-Shrewsbury Trunk Road: Llantarnam Bypass DBA

GGAT 1992 Llantarnam Village Fe

GGAT 1993 Excavations At Llantarnam Village, Gwent Exc

GGAT 1994 Abbey Farm Lands, Llantarnam Wb

Birmingham University 1998 Abbey Farm, Llantarnam Wb

Cambrian Archaeological Projects 1998 The Former Montressa Tree Nursery, Llantarnam Fe

MICHAELSTON-SUPER ELY (ST 115 762)

Shrunken village in Ely valley. Surveyed by RCAHMW and published in Glamorgan Inventory III Part II. Work by GGAT and Babtie have located further buildings. Reports in SMR

CPM 1992 Michaelston Super Ely: Desk-Based Assessment

GGAT 1992 Michaelston Super Ely Fe

Baptie 1996 Michaelston Cottage, St Pagans Wb

GGAT 2001 Cresta, Michaelston Road, St Pagans: Initial Stage Fe

GGAT 2001 Cresta, Michaelston Road, St Pagans

GGAT 2001 Cresta, Michaelston Road, St Pagans: Stage 2 Fe

 

RHOSSILLI(SS415 883)

Village buried by sand and excavated by GGAT in early 1980s. Excavations revealed stone house and a church with the report Davidson Owen-John & Toft being published in 1987. Subsequent monitoring of erosion has been undertaken by GGAT.

Davidson, A F & J E, Owen-John, H S & Toft, L A 1987 Excavations at the sand covered medieval settlement at

Rhossili, West Glamorgan Bull Board Celtic Stud 34, 244-69

GGAT 1996 Rhossili Lower Village, Gower: Survey And Erosion Monitoring S

GGAT 1997 Rhossili Lower Village: Survey And Erosion Monitoring S

 

WRTNSTONE (ST 134 725)

Nucleated village centred on a green. Surveyed by RCAHMW and published in Glamorgan Inventory III Part II. Excavations by Vyner in early 1970s published in 1976 and 1978.

Vyner B et al 1978 The manor and township of Wrinstone, South Glamorgan Cardiff Natur.Soc Trans 99, 15-27 Vyner B E & Wrathmell S 1976 The Deserted Village of Wrinstone, South Glamorgan Trans Cardiff Natur Soc 98, 18-29

 

Moated Sites

 

Little work on moated sites in South-East Wales appears to have been conducted since the introduction to the Moated Sites section of the RCAHMW Glamorgan Inventory III Part II was written apart from the following two sites: -

 

LANGSTONE VILLA LANGSTONE (ST 3742 8979)

Excavation by GGAT and Cotswold Archaeological Trust has established that this "L shaped" earthwork is not a domestic site and either represents a stock enclosure or a mill leat.

Maylan N 1991 Langstone Villa Langstone Archaeol Wales 31, 44-47 GGAT 1990 Interim Report On Excavations At Langstone Villa, Gwent GGAT 1991 Langstone Villa: Final Report Cotswold 1998 Land At Langstone Newport Borough Council Fe

 

ELM FARM UNDY (ST 439 873)

Excavation in advance of development was concentrated on the land to the west and north of this moat, although the works located the ditch on the western side of the enclosure and produced a survey of the surviving earthworks. The excavations revealed evidence for walls, structures and yards interpreted as being a farm complex outside the moated area.

Brown R 1999 Excavation Of A Medieval Trackway And Stone Structures At Undy Monmouthshire Antiq 15, 6-

19

GGAT 1992 Elm Farm, Undy

GGAT 1993 Excavations At Elm Farm, Undy

GGAT 1993 Church Lane, Undy

GGAT 1993 East Of Church Road, Undy

Oxford Archaeology 1998 Excavation Of A Medieval Trackway And Stone Structures At Land Adjacent To

Church Road, Undy Exc

 

Castles

 

The recent publication of the RCAHMW Glamorgan Inventory Vol III part 1 (a & b) has clearly identified the key castle sites in Glamorgan and little work has been undertaken on any of the castles included in that study since its publication except for:

 

SWANSEA (SS 657 931)

A considerable number of evaluation trenches, surveys and watching briefs have been carried out principally by GGAT on the site and these have located a number of walls and surfaces associated with the "Old Castle".

Morris B (nd) Swansea Castle Swansea

Evans EM 1983 Swansea Castle and the Medieval Town Swansea

Hague DB & Williams G 1957 Swansea Castle Gower 10, 3-14

Knight JK 1980 Swansea Castle, Programme of the 127th Annual Meeting, 1980, CAA, 35-7

Morgan W LI 1914 The Castle of Swansea Swansea

GGAT 1977 Swansea Castle, Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeol Trust Annual Report 1976 -77, 18

GGAT 1978 A salvage excavation at Swansea Castle Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeol Trust Annual Report 1977-78,

33-4

Sell SH 1979 Swansea Castle Archaeol Wales 19, 43

Morris B 1976 Swansea Castle Defences - The Western Ditch, Gower 27, 14—19

Evans EM 1983 Swansea Castle and the medieval town Swansea

GGAT 1989 An Environmental Assessment Of The Archaeological Implications Of Development At Worcester

Place, Swansea

GGAT 1994 Worcester Place, Swansea: Stage 1

Statascan 1994 Worcester Place, Swansea: Geophysical Survey

GGAT 1994 Worcester Place, Swansea: Geotechnical Test Pits, Boreholes & Cores

GGAT 1995 Worcester Place, Swansea: Geotechnical Test Pits, Boreholes & Cores Wb

GGAT 1995 Worcester Place, Swansea: Stage 2: Worcester Place Car Park Exc

GGAT 1997 Worcester Place, Swansea Wb

GGAT 1997 Wind Street/Swansea Castle Wb

GGAT 1997 Swansea Castle Wb

GGAT 1997 Worcester Place, Swansea Wb

 

Castles in the former County of Gwent have not been as well served by recent publication. The following are seen as the key sites.

 

ABERGAVENNY (SO 300 140)

Castle situated in a strong defensive position above the confluence of the Rivers Usk and Gavenny. Documentary evidence suggests that it was in existence by AD 1090. Originally a motte and bailey castle, which was rebuilt in stone during the 13th century. It had a circular round tower on the motte and the outer bailey is divided to form a small forecourt to the motte. A large polygonal tower and a long barbican was added c.1300. Documentary history suggests that it was captured by the Welsh on at least one occasion and subsequently recaptured. It was held against Glyndwr and dismantled 1645.

Olding F 1998 Abergavenny: Historic Landscape Survey Dba

Kenyon, John R 1984 Abergavenny Castle: a reinterpretation of Thomas Cooke's painting The Castle and Mount',

Caerleon, 1785 Monmouthshire Antiq 5(1-2), 62-3

GGAT 1990 Excavations At The South-East Tower Of Abergavenny Castle, Gwent

GGAT 1998 Abergavenny Castle North East Tower: Heritage Recording

 

CHEPSTOW (ST 534 942)

A very early castle built c. AD 1067 by William FitsOsbourne on a narrow ridge overlooking the River Wye and its bridge. The river side of the castle is a steep cliff to the Wye with a deep steep sided valley to the west. The earliest part of the castle is a Hall Keep and a series of three wards were constructed enclosing the entire ridge. There is no record of the castle being captured until the Civil War.

Perks J 1957 Chepstow Castle

Wood JG 1910 The Lordship Castle and Town of Chepstow, Newport

BoothK 1992 Chepstow Castle: excavations in the Great Gatehouse, 1991 Monmouthshire Antiq 8, 19-25

GGAT 1994 Chepstow Castle: Watching Brief

Cambrian Archaeological Project 1999 Chepstow Castle, Chepstow: Excavations Outside The Porch Of The Great

Hall Exc

Cambrian Archaeological Projects 2001 Chepstow Castle, Chepstow Wb

Cambrian Archaeological Projects 2001 Caerphilly Castle Fe

Cambrian Archaeological Projects 2001 The Postern Gate, Chepstow Wb

 

NEWPORT (ST 311 885)

A late castle probably built by the Earls of Stafford in the 14th century when Newport became a separate Lordship. The surviving part of the castle comprises the waterfront and consists of three towers connected by a curtain wall containing ornate staterooms. The rest of the castle appears to have been a simple rectangular courtyard with no towers. This has led to the conclusion that it was not completed until the fifteenth century when documentary records show considerable expenditure at the castle in response to the Glyndwr uprising. This work appears to have failed as the castle was captured in AD 1402.

Knight JK 1991 Newport Castle Monmouthshire Antiq 7 GOAT 1992 Newport Castle: Trial Excavations And Other Work

 

PENRHOS (LLANTILIO CROSSENNY) (SO 409 132)

A motte and bailey timber and earthwork castle never re-built in stone. Documentary evidence suggests that it may have been built by John of Monmouth c. AD 1248 during a border dispute with William de Cantilupe. It appears to have a very short violent history, probably being dismantled in AD 1253

Olding 1998 Penrhos Castle Monmouthshire Dba/S

 

RAGLAN (SO 415 083)

The last great castle built in Britain (circa AD 1430-70). The main defensive structure is a large hexagonal tower taking the form of a keep surrounded by a moat. A single large angular ward, divided into two for domestic purposes, with a variety of towers and a strong twin-tower gatehouse is sited to the north pf the keep. The castle was built with the use of cannons in mind and later defences were added in the 17th century for the Civil War when it withstood a long siege (AD 1646) after which the defences were slighted.

Kenyon JR 1996 Raglan Castle: a Reconsideration of an Aspect of the Herbert Period, c. 1460-1469 Monmouthshire

Antiq 12, 52-3

Durant H 1980 Raglan Castle Pontypool

 

USK(SO377011)

A castle comprising an inner and outer ward. The inner ward comprises a small square keep defending a simple entrance and a curtain wall with various shaped towers attached. The early history of the castle is confused but it is likely that it was originally built c.AD 1090 although it was captured by the Welsh c.AD 1138 and recaptured c.AD 1174. The earliest surviving part is the keep (late 12th century) with the rest of the inner ward being 13th and 14th century in date. The outer ward was probably not re-built in stone until the 14th century.

Knight JK 1977 Usk Castle and its Affinities in Apted et al 1977 Ancient Monuments and their Interpretation: Essays Resented to A J Taylor 139 -54 Chichester Monmouth Archaeology 2001 Usk Castle, tMFe

 

WHITE CASTLE (SO 380 167)

Originally a single ward castle with a crescent shaped barbican surrounded by a formidable wet most. The ward was built in stone with a square keep in the 12l century. The keep was demolished in the 13th century and the curtain wall given four round towers and a twin tower gatehouse. The barbican appears to have been abandoned as part of this rebuilding as a very large but weakly defended outer ward was built to the north.

Remfry PM 2000 White Castle, 1066 to 1438 Worcester

Radford CAR 1962 White Castle, Monmouthshire

Taylor AJ 1961 White Castle in the Thirteenth Century: A Re-Consideration Medieval Archaeol 5, 169-75

 

Town Defences

 

Town defences were originally proposed to be included in the RCAHMW Glamorgan Inventory Vol III part Ib but were not included in the final publication

 

ABERGAVENNY (SO 300 140)

Murage grants for the town are recorded in AD 1241-6 and AD 1259 - 64 as well as 1285 and 1314 -19. It is thought that the latter two grants refer to the line of the town wall that is clearly delineated in the modern property boundaries of the town. Sections of the medieval fabric survive in many places.

GGAT 1989 The Town Walls Of Abergavenny: A Survey S/Dba Monmouth Archaeology 1999 Abergavenny Town Wall Wb

 

COWBRIDGE (SS 993 747)

There is no known date for the construction of this town wall that survives to the west and south of the medieval town along with one gate.

Marches Arch 1999 The Town Walls, Cowbridge Dba

Davidson A 1979 Bear Hotel, Cowbridge: some evidence for the medieval town defences and Romano-British

occupation Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeol Trust Annual Report 1977-78, 27 -8

Davidson A 1979 Bear Hotel, Cowbridge Archaeol Wales 19, 40

Davidson A 1979 Archaeological notes: Bear Hotel, Cowbridge', Morgannwg, 23, 90

 

MONMOUTH (SO507 127)

Apart from one tower incorporated into the Nags Head public house no upstanding remains of the town walls of Monmouth survive (murage grants of 1295 and AD 1315), however excavations have located almost the entire circuit of the defences.

Bagnell-Oakeley 1896 The Fortification of Monmouth Monmouth

Clarke SH, Jackson P & R 1992 Archaeological Evidence for Monmouth's Roman, and Early Medieval Defences

Archaeol Wales 32, 1 —6

 

SWANSEA (SS 657 930)

Murage grants are recorded for AD 1317 and 1338 for the town of Swansea. The defences of Swansea have been demolished (apart from one possible tower) and most of their line built over. However, excavation has revealed much of their extent and form.

Sell SH & Parkhouse J 1980 Rutland Street, Swansea Archaeol Wales 20, 64

Morris B 1975 Swansea's Medieval Defences - Some Recent Discoveries Gower 26, 11-15

Lightfoot K 1979 The Medieval Town Defences of Swansea: The Whitewalls Excavation, 1978-79 Cover 30, 76-

9

Sell SH 1981 Excavations at Little Wind Street, Swansea, 1976 Gower 32, 71-83*

 

Communications

 

MARITIME

Maritime communication was important in the medieval period especially for the transportation of heavy goods. Little physical research has so far been undertaken except for an initial study of port sites and the excavation of the Magor Pill boat. The study of trade links and commodities traded has also received some initial studies.

South Glamorgan County Council (nd) Ports of South Glamorgan Cardiff

Green C 1995 Trows and the Severn Coastal Trade Archaeol Severn Estuary 6, 97 - 114

Griffiths RA 1984 Medieval Severnside; The Welsh Connection in Davies RR, Griffiths RA, Jones 1G & Morgan

KO 1984 Welsh Society and Nationhood, 70-89 Cardiff

Wood JG 1914 The Manor and Mansion of Moynes Court (with appendices on the ancient harbours of South

Monmouthshire) Newport

Nayling N 1998 The Magor Pill medieval wreck (CBA Research Report 115)

Nayling N 1995 The excavation, recovery and provisional analysis of a medieval wreck from Magor Pill, Gwent

Levels Archaeol Severn Estuary 6, 85 - 96

Allen JA 1998 Magor Pill Multiperiod Site: The Romano-British Pottery and Status as a Port Archaeol Severn

Estuary 8, 45 - 60

Allen. JRL 1996 A Possible Medieval Trade in Iron Ores in the Severn Estuary of South-west Britain Medieval

Archaeol 40 226-229

 

ROADS

The medieval land communication routes have also received little study so far, apart from the Roads section of the RCAHMW Glamorgan Inventory III Part II. No equivalent research appears to have been conducted in Gwent apart from the investigation of two bridges.

Rowlands MLJ 1994 Monnow Bridge and Gate Stroud Gorvett D 1984 Bridge over the River Wye R & A Broadhurst Jervoise E 1936 The Ancient Bridges if Wales and Western England Waters I 1980 Chepstow Road Bridges Chepstow Maylan N 1988 Monmouth Archaeol Wales 28, 73

 

Climatical Change

 

The climatical changes in the 14th and 15th century in Wales led to a number of major alterations of the landscape with rising sea levels and in places the encroachment of windblown sand.

 

GWENT LEVELS

The rise in sea level required either the existing sea defences to be improved or new defences built on the artificially drained marshland on the seaboard between Cardiff and Chepstow.

Allen JA 1996 The seabank on the Wentlooge Level, Gwent: date of set-back from documentary and pottery

evidence Archaeol Severn Estuary 7, 67 - 84

Rippon 1996 Gwent Levels: The Evaluation of a Wetland Landscape CBA Research Report 105

Williams DH 1970 Goldcliffe Priory Monmouthshire Antiq 3(1), 1-32

RHOSSILLI

Settlement overwhelmed by windblown sand

Toft, LA 1988 A study of coastal village abandonment in the Swansea Bay region, 1270-1540 Morgannwg 32, 21-

37

 

Ecclesiastical General

 

The completion of the Welsh Historic Churches Project comprising a detailed database of all medieval church in South-East Wales has left little additional information to be considered.

Evans EM 1997 Welsh Historic Churches Project: Gwent Historic Churches Survey

Evans EM 1998 Welsh Historic Churches Project: Glamorgan Historic Churches Survey

Evans EM, Davidson A, Ludlow N & Silvester R 2000 Medieval Churches in Wales: The Welsh Historic

Churches Project and its results Church Archaeology 4, 5-26

Williams DH 2000 The Church in Medieval Gwent Monmouthshire Antiq 16, 2-10

 

Monastic

 

The monastic orders in South-East Wales have been well covered by the RCAHMW in the various parts of the Glamorgan Inventory and by David Williams in Gwent.

W illiams DH 1982 The Cistercians in Wales

Williams DH 1984 White Monks on the Border

Williams DH 1994 Atlas of Cistercian Lands in Wales

Williams DH 1970 Goldcliffe Priory Monmouthshire Antiq 3(1), 1-32

Cowley FG 1977 The Monastic Order in South Wales 1066 - 1349

Two Benedictine priories in Monmouthshire have had recent extensive investigations

 

ST.MARY'S PRIORY ABERGAVENNY (SO 301 141)

A Benedictine Priory founded c. AD 1100 and dissolved AD 1535 the church becoming the parish church of Abergavenny. Most of the priory buildings were incorporated into a large house demolished in the 1950s.

GOAT 1994 St Mary's Church, Abergavenny

GGAT 1994 Herbert Chapel, St Mary's Priory Church, Abergavenny Exc

GOAT 1994 Herbert Chapel, St Mary's Priory Church, Abergavenny: Report On Further Work

GGAT 1995 St Mary's Priory South Claustral Range, Abergavenny Fe

GGAT 1997 Sir William De Hastings Monument, Herbert Chapel, St Mary's, Abergavenny: Wall Plaster Report

Archaeological Investigations 1998 St Mary's Church, Abergavenny Fe

Archaeological Investigations 1998 St Mary's Priory Church, Abergavenny Fe

Archaeological Investigations 1999 St Mary's Priory Church, Usk Exc

Cambrian Archaeological Project 1999 St Mary's Priory South Claustral Range, Abergavenny WB

Border Archaeology 2000 Tithe Barn, St Mary's Priory, Monk Street, Abergavenny Fe

Border Archaeology 2000 Tithe Barn, St Mary's Priory, Monk Street, Abergavenny: Geophysical Test Pits Fe

Cambrian Archaeological Project 2000 St Mary's Priory, Abergavenny: Survey Of East Claustral Range S

 

ST.MARY'S PRIORY, USK (SO 379 008)

The only Benedictine Nunnery in Wales founded before AD 1135 and dissolved AD 1535. The Priory church also served as the parish church (it has a double nave) and continued in this role after the dissolution of the priory. Large parts of the church including the chancel and the transepts have been demolished and some of the priory buildings are incorporated into a large house to the south of the church.

Williams DH 1980 Usk Nunnery Monmouthshire Antiq 4, 44-45

Maylan CN 1993 Excavations at St.Mary's Priory Usk 1987 Monmouthshire Antiq 9, 29-42

Mein AG 1993 Usk Priory: an unrecorded excavation Monmouthshire Antiq 8, 43-5

Mein AG 2000 St.Mary's Priory Church Usk Monmouthshire Antiq 16, 55-72

Boucher A & Williams D 2000 An Excavation at St.Mary's Priory, Usk Monmouthshire Antiq 16, 73-83

 

Monastic Granges

 

The monastic granges in Glamorgan are covered by the RCAHMW Glamorgan Inventory III part II. Cistercian granges are also included in William's Atlas of Cistercian Lands.

Williams DH 1994 Atlas of Cistercian Lands in Wales Cardiff

Recent investigations have provided additional details on two granges and located a previously unknown site near Chepstow.

 

T HE GRANGE OF ST. MICHAEL, PYLE (SS 816 828)

A grange of Margam Abbey of which only the remains of the Tithe barn were previously known, Investigations in advance of the construction of a pipeline identified the location of the main range of buildings to the south-west of the Tithe barn and also a medieval mill.

Channel Archaeology 1998 Coed Hirwaun Off Site Foul Drainage, Pyle Dba

Channel Archaeology 1998 Llanmihangel Farm, Margam Fe

Channel Arch 1999 Coed Hirwaun, Pyle: Off Site Foul Drainage Scheme Wb

 

ROGERSTONE GRANGE (ST 506 965)

Survey work by David Williams and the conversion of various farm buildings has provided more evidence about this grange of Tintern Abbey.

Williams DH 1999 Rogerstone Grange, St.Arvans Monmouth Antiq 15, 22-31 Baptie 2000 Old Granary, Rogerstone Grange, St Aryans Wb

 

ST.LAWRENCE, CHEPSTOW (ST 525 936)

Excavations in advance of residential development located a complex of stone buildings close to the site of St. Lawrence's chapel. Evidence for pottery and tile production on the site has also been recovered.

Clwyd Powys 1995 Proposed Housing Development At Bayfield, Chepstow Dba

BUFAU 1998 Land At Bayfield, Chepstow Fe

BUFAU 1999 Excavations at St.Lawrence's, Bayfield, Chepstow: Interim Report

 

Cemeteries

 

Few cemeteries have been investigated in South-East Wales. The only published ones are:

 

ST.MARY'S PRIORY USK (SO 379 008)

Cemetery east of the Chancel of St.Mary's Priory, possibly a benefactor's graveyard

Maylan CN 1993 Excavations at St.Mary's Priory Usk 1987 Monmouthshire Antiq 9, 29-42

 

FREE LIBRARY, CARDIFF (ST 183 764)

Re-development of the Library required the excavation of burials probably from the churchyard of St. Johns church.

Taverner N 1998 Exhumation of Burial and Excavations at the Old Free Library, Trinity Street, Cardiff Archaeol Wales 38, 74-78

 

Hospitals

 

SWANSEA (SS 656 930)

The Hospital of the Blessed David (now the Cross Keys Inn) was surveyed by the RCAHMW and published in the Glamorgan Inventory Vol III Part II. Excavations referred to in that description have since been published

Sell SH 1993 Excavations at St.Mary's Swansea Archaeol Wales 33, 1 - 15

 

TRELLECK (SO 500 550)

Geophysical survey by UW Newport has located a structure though to be a hospice at Trelleck. Work is on going

Hamilton M & Howell R 2000 Trellech: The geophysical survey of a possible medieval hospice site Medieval Archaeol 44 229 -234

 

Landscape

 

The medieval landscape is being increasingly studied at present, not only by academic but also by the Unitary Authorities as part of their LANDMAP process.

GGAT 1997 Landscapes Working for the Vale of Glamorgan: History Aspects

GGAT 1998 Landscapes Working for Newport: History Aspects

GGAT 1998 Landscapes Working for Cardiff: History Aspects

GGAT 1999 Landscapes Working for Monmouthshire: History Aspects

Oxford Archaeology 1999 Landscapes Working for Blaenau Gwent: History Aspects

Giffords 1999 Landscapes Working for the Valleys: History Aspects

GGAT 2000 Landscapes Working for Neath Port Talbot: History Aspects

GGAT 2000 Landscapes Working for Torfaen: History Aspects

GGAT 2001 Landscapes Working for Merthyr Tydfil: History Aspects

Kissock J 1991 Farms, fields and hedges: aspects of the rural economy of north-east Gower, c. 1300 to c. 1650

Archaeol Cambrensis 140, 130-47

Rippon 1996 Gwent Levels: The Evaluation of a Wetland Landscape CBA Research Report 105

GGAT 2000 Pen Y Waun, Llangyfelach, Swansea: Building & Hedgerow Surveys S

GGAT 2001 Felindre, Swansea: Historic Hedgerow Survey S

Rippon S 1993 The Severn wetlands during the historic period Archaeol Severn Estuary 4, 31 - 36

Rippon S & Nayling N 1993 The Gwent Levels Historic Landscape Study Archaeol Severn Estuary 4, 113 - 118

Rippon S 1995 The evolution of a historic wetland landscape: the Gwent Levels Historic Landscape Study

Archaeol Severn Estuary 5, 7 - 20

Rippon S 2000 The Historic Landscapes of the Severn Estuary Levels Archaeol Severn Estuary 10, 145 - 162

Davies M 1955-6 Common Lands in South-East Monmouthshire Cardiff

Tate WE 1978 A Domesday of English Enclosure Acts and Awards Reading

Davies M 1954-5 'Field Patterns in the Vale of Glamorgan Cardiff"Natur.Soc Trans 84, 5-14

 

Industry

 

Ceramics

Pottery and Tile kilns

There has been considerable research onto the medieval pottery industry in South-East Wales and a number of production sites identified by waste material, but so far only 4 kiln sites have been positively identified

Evans D H & Vyner B E 1978 A possible kiln site at Llanfarach, Glamorgan Medieval Later Pottery Wales 1 40-4 Evans DH 1983 Some Current Problems in Defining Late Medieval Pottery in Wales Medieval Later Pottery Wales 6, 1-22

Clarke SH, Jackson R & Jackson P 1987 The North Gwent Potteries: an Assessment of the evidence in Vyner B and Wrathmell S (ed) 1987 Studies in Medieval and Later Pottery in Wales \ 20 -! 31

 

PENHOW (ST 423 908)

Pottery kiln found in the Shrunken Medieval village to the east of the castle, excavated by Wrathmell. Probably in production late 12th to early 14th centuries

Wrathmell S 1981 A Medieval Pottery Kiln and Wasters at Penhow, Gwent Medieval Later Pottery Wales 4, 1-7

 

ST. LAWRENCE CHEPSTOW (ST 525 936)

A 14th century pot and tile kiln found in courtyard of grange complex.

BUFAU 1999 Excavations at St.Lawrence's, Bayfield, Chepstow: Interim Report

43

 

DRYBRIDGE STREET, MONMOUTH (SO 503 126)

Archaeological evaluation located a 14th century kiln.

Monmouth Archaeology 2002 43 Drybridge Street, Monmouth Fe

 

CADOGAN HOUSE MONMOUTH (SO 509 131)

Tile kiln producing floor tiles decorated by stamps similar to examples found at Malvern Abbey.

Clarke S, Jackson, R, Jackson P and Harper L 1992 A Malvernian Floor Tile Kiln at Monmouth Medieval Ceramics 16

 

Pottery

The analysis of pottery recovered by excavations is included in all excavation reports however Papazian and Campbell have produced a pan-Wales survey of medieval pottery and roof tiles. Unfortunately this does not include much of the material from north-eastern Monmouthshire however this has been reported on by Clarke.

Papazian C 1990 The survey of medieval ceramics from south-east Wales Medieval Ceram 14, 23-40

Papazian C & Campbell E 1992 Medieval Pottery and Roof Tiles in Wales AD 1100-1600 Medieval Later Pottery

Wales 13, 1-107

Clarke SH 1991 The origins of medieval Pottery in South-east Wales Medieval Ceram 15, 71 -74

 

Tiles

Lewis has completed and published his pan-Wales study of medieval floor tiles,

Lewis JM 1999 The Medieval Tiles of Wales Cardiff

Mills

Mills in Glamorgan (both water and wind powered) are included in RCAHMW Glamorgan Inventory III part II but as individual sites, often as part of other complex rather than as a separate class of monument. In Gwent, Courtney has conducted a survey of windmills and Coates and Tucker have surveyed watermills of the Monnow and Trothi

Courtney, Paul 1982 The Windmills of Gwent Monmouthshire Antiq 4(3-4), 50-1 Coates SD & Tucker DG 1983 Watermills of the Monnow and Trothi Monmouth

 

MELIN MYNACH (SS 593 991)

Mill built by the Cistercian Monks from Neath Abbey in the 12th Century as part of the grange of Cwrt Y Carnau . It has a mill leat circa two and a half kilometres long reputably the second longest mill leat in Wales.

GGAT 1990 Melin Mynach, Gorseinon Dba GGAT 1991 Melin Mynach, Gorseinon: Stage 2 Fe

 

Iron

Large quantities of iron slag have been found during excavations in Gwent. However, only in two areas have actual working sites been investigated.

 

TRELLECH (SO 500 053)

Bloomery furnaces and smithies have been found in the town suggesting that both initial smelting of ore and working of iron occurred.

Clark, S C, Owen-John, Henry & Knight, J K 1982 Medieval iron working at Trelech: a small salvage excavation,

with a list of early bloomery sites in the Monmouth-Trelech area Monmouthshire Antiq 4(3-4), 45-9

Howell R 1995 Ironworking at the Medieval Borough of Trellech, Gwent in Crewe P & Crewe S (eds) 1995 Iron

for Archaeologists: A Review of Recent Work on the Archaeology of Early Iron-Working Sites in Europe Plas Tan-

y-Bwlch

Howell R 1989 A Report on the Excavation of a Medieval Industrial Site in Trelech, Gwent Medieval Later

Pottery Wales \ 1,62-85

Monmouth Archaeology 1998 Court Farm Bungalow, Trellech Fe

 

MONMOUTH (SO 507 127)

Smithing sites have been located but so far no indications of primary smelting have been found.

Marvell AG (ed) 2001 Excavations in Monnow Street Oxford

 

Fishing

Physical evidence for fishing activity is currently confined to fish weirs and traps on the foreshore of the Severn and in Swansea Bay. Although there is documentary evidence foe the use of coracles and nets.

 

GWENT LEVELS

Green C 1992 The Severn Fisheries Archaeol Severn Estuary 3, 69 - 74

Nayling N 1999 Medieval and later Fish Weirs at Magor Pill, Gwent Levels: Coastal Change and Technological

Development Archaeol Severn Estuary 10, 99 - 113

Godbold S & Turner RC 1994 Medieval Fishtraps in the Severn Estuary Medieval Archaeol 3%, 1-54

 

SWANSEA BAY

Nayling N 1999 A Stone and Wattle Fish Weir Complex in Swansea Bay Archaeol Severn Estuary 10, 115 – 1

 

 

 

 

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