A Research Framework for the Archaeology of Wales

Southeast Wales – Roman, key sites

22/12/2003

 

 

DEFENSIVE (MILITARY WITHIN RAMPARTS)

 

Marching Camps

 

BLAEN CWM BACH CAMP (SS79709878; SAM Gm 258)

Roman marching camp, 908m x 295m (see RCAHM l.ii, 99 (739))

 

COELBREN (SN86201025; SAM Gm 343)

Marching camp c 440m x c 320m, rounded corners, entrances destroyed, wet (peaty) interior (see RCAHM l.ii, 99 (738))

 

MELIN COURT CAMP (SN837001; SAM GM 367)

Roman marching camp. Only about three-fifths of the perimeter can be traced. It is approximately square, with sides varying in length from 203m to 239m.

 

PENYCOEDCAE (ST06708800)

Pen-y-Coedcae Roman marching camp; third largest in Wales. The camp is typical 'playing card' shape with straight sides 478m x 320m in length with rounded corners, enclosing an area of 15.2 hectares (see RCAHM l.ii, 99 (740))

 

PRIORY WOOD, CAERLEON (ST35919051)

Part of a marching camp seen on aerial photographs; limited assessment in 1993.

 

TWYN Y BRIDDALLT (STOO159820, SAM Gm 259)

Roman marching camp of irregular shape' and about 16 acres in area. The site has not been planted over and remains in good condition (see RCAHM l.ii, 99 (741)).

 

Fortresses

 

CAERLEON (ISCA) (ST33909060; SAM MM14)

Legionary base of II Augusta occupied late lst - late 3rd and in reduced form into 4th century. Excavated from 19th Century onwards (see Boon 1972 (revised 1987) for overview, and subsequently Zienkiewicz 1986 a & b; 1990, 1993). Extensive areas in western half scheduled, eastern area is more developed. Some parts in guardianship and displayed. Finds and report archives held at Legionary Museum.

 

USK (BURRIUM)  (SO37520069)

Invasion base occupied by XX Valeria Victrix, possibly brigaded with an ala. Extensive excavations in the central part (Manning 1981, 1989, 1993), smaller areas in the northern third (Evans & Metcalfe 1992; Marvell 1990, 1996), and minor observations elsewhere (Manning 1981, 1989; Marvell & Maynard 1998). Southern part includes extensive scheduled areas. Finds and report archives held at Legionary Museum in Caerleon

 

Forts

 

ABERGAVENNY (SO29701420; SAM Mm 193)

Roman auxiliary fort occupied for mid 1st century to early second. Small-scale excavations from 1960s (see Blockley 1993). Finds and archives in Abergavenny Museum.

 

CARDIFF CASTLE (ST18067659 SAM Gm 171)

Occupied mid 1st to 4th centuries. Four forts, earliest is a pre-Flavian invasion base; latest is 'Saxon shore' type. Excavations in 1970s (Webster 1990) Finds and archivesat NMGW.

 

CAERPHILLY (ST15388729)

Roman auxiliary fort occupied lst-2nd century. Limited excavations in early 1960s (Lewis 1966). Finds and archive at NMGW.

 

COELBREN (SN85901073; SAM Gm 146)

Fully Extant Roman Fort occupied late 1st to mid 2nd century. Well-defined annexe. Other external features. Limited excavation in early 20th century (Morgan 1970), more recent non-intrusive survey (Yates 2001). Waterlogged site. Finds and archives at Swansea Museum.

 

GELLIGAER FORT (ST13419707, SAM Gm 16)

Roman auxiliary fort, multi-period occupation and rebuilding, separate Flavian timber-constructed base. Well-defined annexe. The site now lies in the middle of Gelligaer village, mostly in a field but partly under gardens, houses and a road. Excavated 1899-1913 (Ward 1903, 1909, 1911, 1913). Finds and archive at NMGW.

 

LOUGHOR (LEUCARUM) (SS564979)

Roman fort occupied late 1st to mid 2nd century AD with re-occupations in late 2nd and late 3rd to early 4th centuries. Mid- 2nd century reduction. Discovered during excavations at later Castle (Lewis 1969), later excavations across defences and in south-western interior (Ling & Ling 1973 & 1979; Marvell & Owen-John 1997). Finds and archives in Swansea Museum and NMGW (main body of material)

 

NEATH (NIDUM) (SS74749773; SAM Gm 215)

Roman auxiliary fort occupied 1st -early/mid 2nd Century with re-occupations in later 2nd and late 3rd/early 4th century. Original discovery and excavations in 1949 (Nash- Williams 1950 & 1952), further excavations across defences in 1958 and within in interior in 1984-5 and 1989 (Heywood & Marvell 1992). Finds and archive in Neath Museum.

 

PENYDARREN FORT (SO05030678)

A Roman auxiliary fort built on a spur of ground overlooking the Morlais Valley in Penydarren Park, occupied during the 1st and 2nd centuries, up to c!40 AD. Found during construction work at the end of the 18th century. Limited excavations in 20th century (Heywood 1991). Some finds and archives at Cyfarthfa Castle Museum

 

Works Depot

 

USK (SO37520069)

Flavio-Trajanic base at Usk. A works depot for the II Augusta seems more likely than a small fort or fortlet (See Manning 1989; Marvell 1996)

 

Practice Camps

 

FFOREST GWLADYS PRACTICE CAMP (A) (ST13799917; SAM Gm 164)

One of two rectangular earthworks 530m SSW of Heol-ddu-uchaf, Gelligaer (see RCAHMl.ii, 103(749)

 

FFOREST GWLADYS PRACTICE CAMP (B) (ST13869916; SAM Gm 164)

One of two rectangular earthworks 530m SSW of Heol-ddu-uchaf, Gelligaer, with a bank and external ditch (see RCAHM l.ii, 101 (750))

 

FFOREST GWLADYS ROMAN EARTHWORKS (ST13159908; SAM Gm 273)

Rectangular earthwork, with banks. Clavicula entrance in south side. The site lies below the top of the Gelligaer ridge in marshy ground (see RCAHM l.ii, 103 (747))

 

GELLIGAER PRACTICE CAMP (ST13159943)

There is a trace of a gateway in the middle of the west side, but no clavicula or titulum is visible. The east side is almost obliterated (see RCAHM l.ii, 103 (748))

 

GELLIGAER COMMON (ST11619862)

There is another supposed Roman practice camp on Gelligaer Common. Gates are identifiable in the northwest and southeast sides. The camp is in a very poor condition, (see RCAHM l.ii, 101 (746))

 

MYNYDD  CARN GOCH ROMAN EARTHWORKS  (SS60779718;  SAM Gm269A)

Square camp (23m) defined by slight bank and traces of a ditch (see RCAHM 1 .ii, 101 (743))

 

MYNYDD  CARN  GOCH  ROMAN  EARTHWORKS  (SS60869719;   SAM  Gm269B)

Square camp (25m) defined by slight bank, (see RCAHM l.ii, 101 (744))

 

STAFFORD COMMON (SS59149731; SAM GM 502)

Rectangular enclosure 53m x 46m, defined by slight bank. No sign of entrance (see RCAHMl.ii, 101(742))

 

Signal Stations

 

HIRFYNYDD (SN82840663; SAM Gm 274)

Rectangular earthwork (19.5 x 18.3m) with rounded corners and external ditch. Single entrance in middle of southeast side.

 

RHEOLA(SN81240401)

Damaged earthwork, partly excavated

 

Other defensive sites

 

CAERWENT TOWN WALLS and BASTIONS

Other Military (undefended - see also vicus below)

 

GELLIGAER PARADE GROUND (ST13479713)

A level area some 116m long adjoining the northeast side of the fort

 

CAERLEON PARADE GROUND (ST33689043)

Legionary fortress enclosure on southwest side revealed occupation military in character.

 

[Suggested Forts - TREDUNNOC CHURCH (ST3 80948) vestigial traces (?earthwork) immediately south, west and southwest of church; COED-Y-CAERAU (ST37959163; SAM Mm 42) square earthwork with an entrance c.5ft from the middle of the northwest side; COWBRIDGE (7BOMIUM) (SS99447484) suggested site of the Roman auxiliary fort named 'Bomium' , alternative locations at SS89257861 (Ewenny Park) SS90457815 (Glanwenny);

TWYN YR ALLT (ST244844) artificial escarpment and local tradition of there having been a 'Roman camp' , desk-top assessment in 1991 (OAA); CRAIG OLWAY FARM(SO38600060) probable Roman fort, no ditch but outlined solely by a double line of individual pestholes 2m apart, PRIORY WOOD CAMP (ST36149074) possible extension/annexe of an earlier identified undated enclosure (see marching camps above); LITTLE GAB ALFA /

LLYS-TAL-Y-BONT (ST1778) oral tradition).]

 

DOMESTIC (MILITARY OUTSIDE RAMPARTS, CIVIL URBAN AND RURAL SETTLEMENT OR BUILDINGS

 

Canabae

 

CAERLEON CANNABAE (ST335901)

The civilian settlement surrounding the Roman legionary fortress; see Evans 2000 for most recent work including extensive excavations on eastern side of fortress and a summary of overall understanding. Finds and archives from work are at the Legionary Museum and Newport Museum.

 

Vici

 

CARDIFF (ST181764)

Extra-mural activity relating to Forts II and III took place (at least in part) on land that later formed the southern portion of the Shore Fort. The north-south road appears to have provided the axis for the civilian settlement, initially consisting of houses (possibly of strip building type), and later giving way to industry, in which iron smelting and perhaps tile production was of primary importance. Stray finds have also been recovered from the High Street and off Womanby Street.

 

COELBREN (SN859107)

Recent survey work (Yates (2001) has identified geophysical anomalies outside the fort and eastern annexe and a building 300m to the south of the defences, close to the line of the road to Neath. This structure has morphological similarities with barrack-like buildings situated within a walled compound excavated at Holt in Denbighshire, where the workers at a military works-depot were housed (Grimes 1930; Nash-Williams 1969, 42-4, Fig. 16).

 

GELLIGAER (ST1341970)

A civilian settlement relating to the Flavian fort is believed to lie below the later stone fort. This would have been relocated in the early 2nd century. Various elements of this later vicus are known. In addition to the parade ground and bathhouse, there were other buildings with a possible industrial function located to the southeast of the fort later incorporated into an annexe. Other extra-mural remains include a tile and pottery kiln, which was probably associated with the construction phase of the stone fort's internal buildings and elsewhere there would have been mortuary zones.

 

LOUGHOR (SS564979)

Given the location of the fort in relation to the River Loughor, the vicus must have been located to the east, north-east or south-east of the defences, although the harbour (probably just consisting of a beaching point) and any associated structures may have lain to the west. A significant number of isolated finds and other discoveries have been made in the environs of the fort. A 'cist' and a possible pottery kiln have both been found east of the fort, and were probably located alongside the road leading towards Neath.

 

NEATH (SS74829791)

Evidence for a vicus has been found to the north and west of the fort from chance finds (Heywood & Marvell 1992 and more recently during assessments carried out in the 1990s. Structures include a possible mansio to the west of the fort a complex of buildings with an apparently industrial function, probably stretching along a corridor adjacent to the road leaving the fort's north gate). Elsewhere, earth-cut features, which perhaps represented the remains of timber buildings, have been discovered to the southeast of the fort through a geophysical survey.

 

PENYDARREN (SO05030678)

Roman  finds  have  been  made  both  to  the  north  and  south  of the  defences. Immediately to the south of the fort several substantial buildings were discovered, including the bathhouse. On the opposite, north, side of the fort, there is evidence for at least one other structure, known from the find of a mosaic pavement. To the northeast of the fort cremation burials indicate the position of one of the mortuary areas.

 

[The evidence for vici in Southeast Wales is currently being reviewed as part of project being undertaken by GGAT for Cadw]

 

M ansio

 

GLAN Y MOR / COLD KNAP (ST09936648; SAM Gm 419)

Roman courtyard building, possibly a mansio (see Evans et al 1985)

 

CWRT HERBERT (SS74649778)

Roman building late 1st/early 2nd century possible residence or mansio outside the fort at Neath.

 

Civitas Capital

 

CAERWENT (VENTA SILURUM) (ST468905; SAM Mml)

Roman Town occupied 2nd-4th century, principal market. Early ribbon development including workshops. Forum established under Hadrian. Completion of insulae (20) by later second/early third century. Stone defences added late third/early fourth century, later strengthened by addition of projecting interval towers. More opulent building construction in late third/fourth centuries. Survival into first half of fifth century. Various excavations since late 19th century, most recently by NMGW (Brewer 1990, 1993) on the forum and forum-temple. Extensive areas scheduled or in guardianship and displayed. Finds and archives at NMGW and Newport Museum.

 

Small towns or roadside settlements

 

BULMORE (ST355915; SAM Mm 176)

Ribbon settlement along banks of River Usk to southeast of Caerleon. Occupation extends from lst-3rd centuries and includes funerary, domestic, industrial, religious and transport remains. Partly excavated by GGAT/NMGW in 1980s (unpublished), full extent more recently established following remote sensing surveys and field evaluation works (see esp. MacDonald forthcoming)

 

COWBRIDGE (? BOMIUM) (SS995745)

Small town on A48. The remains mostly lie under medieval burgages with the exception of extensive industrial activity under Bear Field. Military connections present. Remains included funerary, domestic, industrial, religious and transport. Occupation extends from very late 1st to 4th centuries. Various parts excavated in 1970s and 1980s (see Parkhouse and Evans 1996). Finds and archives with Cowbridge Museum.

 

MONMOUTH (BLESTIUM) (SO511127)

Evidence of civil settlement (with possible military antecedent) survives in places below medieval town. Occupation extends from late lst-4th centuries. Extensive ironworking and other remains attested along Monnow Street (Marvell 2001). Finds and archives with Monmouth Museum.

 

USK (SO37520069)

Extensive settlement across southern parts of fortress following closure of Flavio-Trajanic works depot. Full details remain unpublished but see Manning (1989). Occupation extends into 4th century and appears to have imperial/military Connections. Some fragmentary remains identified to the south of the fortress (Marvell & Maynard 1998)

*

Other probable

 

ABERGAVENNY

Chance finds and burials along Hereford road indicate possible settlement location.

 

CARDIFF (ST1876)

See evidence for possible vicus above; other chance finds (coins and pottery) at (ST179747), (ST180763) (ST18107640) and (ST183766) point to possible settlement extending south and west.

 

CHEPSTOW (ST534940)

Chance finds of coins and pottery at (ST53289377) (ST53519356) (ST53529344) (ST53569425) and (ST536939) along with three Roman cremations, (ST536942) and building material incorporated into the fabric of the later castle indicate possibility of settlement below present town at major river confluence.

 

LOWER MACHEN (ST22758773)

Extensive area of activity associated with metalworking confirmed by geophysical survey, metal-detecting finds and limited excavations. Occupation runs from late 1st to 2nd centuries (see Evans 2001)

 

PORTSKEWETT (ST49988807 & ST 500881)

Evidence of settlement indicated by the presence of pits, gullies, shallow banks and a fragment of sandstone wall, together with finds of opus signinum, brick, tile, tegula, various styles of pottery, animal bones and flint.

 

Villas

 

CASTLE TUMP (ST47539115; SAM Mml52)

Roman villa site excavated in the latter half of the 19th century. Unpublished, but a plan was deposited at NMGW.

 

CROES-CARN-EINION VILLA, BASSELEG (ST25758636)

Two buildings visible as cropmarks, one appears to be an aisled building, the other a possible winged villa building. Field visit in 1992 identified a third possible structure not seen on aerial photos.

 

DAN-Y-GRAIG (SS84037803)

Site of a Roman villa, partly excavated in the 19th century and surveyed by magnetometry and resistivity in 1989. Partial excavation revealed eight phases of activity, mostly dating between the mid 3rd and mid 4th centuries (Newman 1990). Finds and archive with NMGW.

 

E LY RACE COURSE VILLA (ST14727615; SAM Gm 205)

Villa excavated by Wheeler (1922; see also RCAHMW ii 115-119 (762)). The initial construction of Buildings 1 & 2 took place in the first half of the second century, partly rebuilt in the third century. Finds and archive with NMGW.

 

FIVE LANES VILLA, LLANVACHES (ST44609100)

Remains of high-status Roman building, comprising of a small winged corridor villa, the long axis of which runs north to south, the southern end being only some 10m from the northern side of the A48 Newport to Chepstow road 2km west of Caerwerit.

 

FORD FARM ROMAN VILLA (ST38458952)

This site comprises a large prominent earthwork damaged by illicit trenching in 2001. A variety of building material was seen in the topsoil of lst-4th century date, plus human remains indicating burial activity. The site has been scheduled.

 

LITTLE HADNOCK ROMAN VILLA (SO536152; SAM Mml95)

2" 13th century building complex. Some evidence for metal-working

 

LLANDOUGH (SS9972)

Site of Roman Villa on Iron Age precursor partially excavated (Owen-John 1988).

 

LLANBETHERY (ST03557023)

Site of Roman villa suggested from rubble layer identified during trial excavation, with finds of pottery of late 2" -4th century, roof and box tile, nails and slag, animal bone. Coin hoard nearby. Geophysical survey in 1999 revealed no certain evidence for buildings within double-ditched enclosure (see Evans 2001).

 

LLANTWIT MAJOR (CAERMEAD) (SS95886998; SAM Gm 20)

Large, fully Romanised villa with a complicated structural history between the 2nd-4th century and possibly built on the site of an earlier Iron Age farmstead.  Ultimately of double-courtyard plan. Periodically excavated during 20th century. Finds and archives with NMGW and NMR (see esp Nash-Williams 1953; RCAHM lii 111-114 (758)).

 

LOWER HOUSE FARM WEST, LLANTWIT MAJOR (SS96466798)

Building in rectilinear enclosure; possible villa.

 

LLANMIHANGAEL PEN-Y-BRYN FARM (SS98407114)

Ploughing has unearthed blocks of dressed limestone, presumably from walls, fragments of roofing slabs and tiles, lumps of ironstone and iron slag, and pottery of 2-4th century date, together with flints, medieval pottery and glass slag.

 

MOULTON (ST07416963; SAM Gm 253)

Complex including Romanised building of ?lst-4th century date. An oval mound is presumably the site of the building but it exhibits no sign of a structure (see RCAHM lii 114 (759)).

 

NEW MILL FARM, MONKNASH (SS91156980)

A mound approximately 65m long, 25m wide and 50-60cm has produced late Iron Age type pottery, 2nd-3rd century coarseware, samian and pennant sandstone tiles; additional concentration of similar material to southwest. Geophysical survey carried out by Stratascan in 1999 suggested rectangular building or buildings within enclosure (see Evans 2001).

 

PORTSKEWETT (ST49818874; SAM Mm 19)

A high status building has been found, not excavated.

 

STOOP HILL ROMAN VILLA (ST483874, SAM Mml69)

Square ditched enclosure of the type that surrounds a house. A broad inner and narrow outer ditch defines most of two sides of an enclosure that measures 175ft northwest to southeast.

 

WHITTON LODGE ROMAN VILLA (ST08117133; SAM Gm252)

Roman Villa near Whitton Lodge, discovered in 1956.   Excavation has shown that there were ten phases of occupation between the later 1st century and c340 AD, and that the site developed from a round house settlement into a villa (Jarret & Wrathmell 1981; see also RCAHM Hi 114-117(761))

 

WYNDCLIFF, PORTHCASSEG (ST5296)

Rectangular building with two corridors identified from aerial photos, with a boundary ditch. Geophysical survey in 1999, has added detail to aerial photographic plot (see Evans 2001).

 

Less Romanised Settlements ('Farmsteads')

 

ABERTHIN (STO1537530)

Finds included sherds of Roman British date. In the same field one field scraper, and other pieces of flint with signs of retouching were found.

 

BARRY CASTLE (ST10106721)

Trenching during building operations in 1956 yielded evidence of Roman occupation beneath the castle. Roman tiles and tufa blocks were excavated.

 

BIGLIS FARM (ST14206940)

Agricultural settlement of three phases, occupied  lst-4* century. Excavated

(Parkhouse 1988).

 

CALDICOT CAERWENT QUARRIES (ST48168720)

Excavated in late 1970s Vyner (1988).

 

CWM BARRY (ST098674)

Remains of two hearths, a fragment of tegula, window glass, pottery, and animal bone; the sites lie within the landscaped grounds of Porthkerry Country Park. There are no visible remains.

 

GLEBE FARM (ST08076667)

Roman settlement identified by geophysical survey following finds of a Roman coin and potsherd, possibly with an Iron Age predecessor. Geophysical survey in 2001 identified part of the enclosure and other anomalies (see Evans 2001).

 

GREAT PENCARN FARM (ST28108360)

A large stone surface of Roman date identified in evaluation excavations below Great Pencarn Farm. The southern part of the surface is probably an external yard, and the northern part may lie within a building. Finds indicate late 2nd-4th century use. (Yates 2000)

 

GREAT PENCARN FARM EAST (ST 28808355)

Stone spreads, features and associated finds found during assessment work.

 

HOME FARM GREEN (ST32749090)

Site of a mosaic found in 1940, since moved to a house known as Pollards Well, probably from a funerary building in Lodge Hill Cemetery.

 

HOPKINS MOUNT, SWANBRIDGE (ST171678)

Square enclosure with rounded edges, visible as a cropmark, suggested Romano-British farmstead or a coastal fortlet.

 

IFTON MANOR (ST46508795)

Roman pottery associated with east-west cist grave, recent excavation in advance of

development.

 

LITTLE GREAVE, WENVOE (ST124732)

Large mound with traces of adjoining enclosure(s) was noted, surface disturbance produced pottery of 2nd-3rd century and fragments of roofing tiles.

 

LLANFRYNACH (SS98037465)

The site of a Romano-British farmstead.  A possible enclosure bank and earthworks which may imply structural remains have been found, and much RB pottery.

 

LLANGYBI WALKS (ST383977)

Possible Roman villa/building complex identified on aerial photos.

 

MAIN STREET, CADOXTON (ST133692)

Roman drystone building and other features, dating between 2nd-4th centuries. Two late 2" century silver coins were found in 1968, together with late Iron Age pottery and iron slag.

 

MYNYDD BYCHAN (SS96307560; SAM Gm76)

Small rural settlement of three phases: the first extends into the mid/late 1st century.

 

NURSTON (ST056676)

Near Nurston, west of Cardiff Airport, ploughing in 1956-1957 unearthed Roman-British pottery and iron clinker and an occupation soil and rubble containing lst-4th century pottery. Trial work in 2000 revealed some features and further finds (Evans 2001).

 

OAKLANDS FARM 1, FIVE LANES (ST44899140)

Roman building and enclosures identified on aerial photos.

 

PEN Y LAN ROMAN SITE (ST198788, SAM Gm 296)

Occupation layer visible on edge of disused quarry, with indications of walls beneath the surface. Roman pottery has been recovered from the site. Site is in an area of waste ground, much overgrown.

 

PENCOEDTRE WOOD, BARRY (ST127705)

Sherds of pottery found with evidence suggesting the collapsed remains of two roundhouses though it is possible that the features may have belonged to the post-Roman period.

 

PENRHOS FARM, CAERLEON (ST34209180)

Structural remains of Roman building

 

POP HILL (ST15906998)

Building on Pop Hill with Roman pottery, 2nd-4th century, now without trace.

 

ROGIET (ST45608770)

Roman building of two phases identified during evaluation excavation and subsequent watching-brief associated coin hoard in adjacent field

 

THORNWELL FARM (ST53909160)

Farmstead and associated fragmentary field system excavated ahead of housing development (Hughes 1996).

 

WELL ROAD, EAST ABERTHAW (ST03436670)

Roman building(s) of lst-4t century date.

 

Hillfort occupations

 

PORTHKERRY BULWARKS (ST08206630; SAM Gm 29)

Roman finds in IA hillfort (Davies 1973a).

 

SUDBROOK CAMP (ST50558732; SAM Mm 48)

Roman occupation evidence in IA hillfort (see Nash-Williams 1939, Sell 2001).

 

CAE SUMMERHOUSE (SS86397798; Gml02)

Embanked and ditched rectangular enclosure representing the remains of a farmstead, with finds indicating intensive lst-4th century occupation (Davies 1973b).

 

LLANMELIN WOOD CAMP (ST46109257)

Mm 24) Roman finds in IA hillfort (Nash-Williams 1933).

 

CAER DYNNAF (SS98357427)

Occupation evidence inside Caer Dynnaf Iron Age hillfort situated on Llanblethian Hill, interpreted as a possible group of small farmsteads. Excavations confirmed a Roman date, with earlier, Iron Age, activity beneath.

 

Potential Sites

 

[Scatters of finds, particularly pottery collections at MERTHYR MAWR WARREN (SS86037694), SUDBROOK FORESHORE (ST49948682), MAGOR PILL FORESHORE (ST438843), GOLDCLIFF (ST370826), BEAUVILLE (ST135722), MINORCA 1, MICHAELSTONE-Y-FEDW (ST23 898600), ST ANDREWS (ST14506940), MAGOR PILL FARM (ST435850), LLANMARTIN (ST396897), PENTRE MEYRJCK ROAD, LLANGAN (SS96977758), BEDWIN SANDS (ST448845), NEWHOUSE FARM, MATHERN (ST530912), CRICK LANE, PORTSKEWETT (ST49538848), ST BRIDES GREAT WHARF (ST300815), LEECHPOOL (ST50588897), GOLDCLIFF (ST370820), GOLDCLIFF PILL (ST368820), MAGOR PILL (ST455855), CHAPELTUMP (ST445850), PETERSTONE GREAT WHARF (ST274799), HOWICK FARM (ST5095), ST ANDREWS (ST14306930), DINAS POWYS (ST150708), SULLY CASTLE (ST152683), REDLANDS, LLANHARRY (ST01438053), WENVOE VILLAGE (ST123724), 87 & 89 BLACK OAK ROAD, CYNCOED (ST191819), THE DROPE, MICHAELSTON-SUPER-ELY (ST11657602), WHITTON (ST081721), PENMARK (ST056676), CASTLE DITCHES, LLANCARFAN (ST05907002), CAERAU (ST13357500), BARRY PARADE GARDENS (ST10566677), BARRY ISLAND (ST115666), ST ANDREWS (ST14306950) FONMON HOME FARM HOME FIELD (ST04496724), ROMILLY PARK, BARRY (ST10186693), MODEL FARM (ST08106755), WOODHOUSES (ST04856850), FONT-Y-GARY (ST04546621), CWM BARRY (ST101674), CWM-NANT-YR-ODYN (ST18679540), NANTGARW-MARGAM PIPELINE (ST07518318) & (ST10468463), LLANCADLE SOUTH (ST03756800), RADYR (ST132806), RHOOSE AIRPORT (ST06506715), WELSH ST DON ATS (ST02007520), KEN SON SOUTH (ST052684), ABERAVON SANDS (SS72849108) , LANGSTONE PARISH CHURCH (ST37138915), TREDEGAR HOUSE, NEWPORT (ST28738525), WOODHOUSES (ST05006825), ST MICHAEL'S CHURCH, MICHAELSTON-SUPER-ELY (ST11517635), CWM-CIDY (ST08786733), PORT ROAD (ST04306660), LLANWERN (ST369880), ST ANDREW'S MINOR CHURCH (SS92817342) and Coin Hoards at PYLE AND KENFIG GOLFCOURSE (SS8080), MORLAIS VILLA (SO03280805), (SANDY BAY, NEWTON (SS82607654), KENFIG BURROWS (SS7880), BLAEN CRYMLYN COIN HOARD (SS94188540), WENTWOOD MILL (ST43829618), LLANEDEYRN (ST 199813), BONVILSTON (ST0674), ABERKENFIG COIN HOARD / CEFN GLAS (SS89208318), NEWCASTLE (SS90617979), BOVERTON (ST0069), SULLY COIN HOARD, TRADITIONAL LOCATION (ST14486846), HENDREW FARM (ST39859150) may indicate the presence of other settlements nearby. Some prehistoric sites have also produced Roman pottery]

 

AGRICULTURE AND SUBSISTENCE

 

Field Systems

 

DINAS POWYS COMMON (ST151708)

An area approximately 130m square on south slope of common covered in grass-grown depressions, some 20m. square, 5m. deep. Underlying limestone shows through grass. Replotted from aerial photographs in 1999 (see Evans 2001).

 

GOLDCLIFF (ST370820)

Banks and ditches defining field system to west of settlement found during evaluation works and further monitoring during watching-brief - late IA to late Roman C14 dates, a few finds (Locock 1998; Locock & Walker 1998. •

 

SALTMARSH, CALDICOT LEVEL (ST3282)

Banks and ditches with 2nd-3rd century pottery found during watching-brief.

 

NASH WASTE WATER TREATMENT WORKS (ST337840)

Field  system,  Roman occupation  suggested  from the  evaluation excavation of agricultural features, including a buried soil horizon and ditches, containing deposits of pottery, animal bone, stone and fired clay.   Palaeochannels containing Romano-british deposits also identified (see Beasley and Meddens 2001).

 

RUMNEY GREAT WHARF (ST2679)

Ditch system in foreshore associated with fragmentary site remains (Allen & Fulford 1986, Fulford et al 1994, Rippon 1996), by extrapolation claims have been advanced that the central part of the Wentlooge Level (especially around Peterstone) comprises a relict Roman reclaimed system of fields and drainage ditches.

 

YSGUBORCH FARM (ST13377190)

Originally recorded as part of GGATs East Vale Survey in early 1980s and thought to be medieval. Now thought to be Roman (Evans 2001) given morphological similarities of enclosures to those on Dinas Powys Common that surround huts. [Field systems are also attested'at some of the villa and farmstead sites listed earlier]

 

TRANSPORT

 

Bridges

 

CAERLEON ROMAN BRIDGE (ST34189038)

Two centurial stones found in c 193 5 near the Hanbury Arms may have come from the abutment(s) of a nearby bridge. One is decorated, and has an inscription translated as The Century of Valerius Flavus in the Second Cohort [built this]'.

 

STRIGUIL BRIDGE (ST53159477)

The suggested site of a Roman bridge.

 

BLACKPILL (SS619907)

Single-arched bridge, said to be Roman (doubtful).

 

Ford

 

SLUVAD FARM (ST326973)

Possible ford for Roman road, identified during the cutting of a pipe trench. No further archaeological deposits were noted.

 

Principal roads

 

MARGARY ROUTE 60

East-west route from Caerwent and Caerleon to Carmarthen (the majority of which is described in Iter XII).

 

MARGARY ROUTE 62a

North-south route (much following the Usk valley), linking the military sites at Caerleon, Usk, Abergavenny and Brecon).

 

MARGARY ROUTE 621

North-south route connecting the military sites at Cardiff, Caerphilly, Gelligaer, Penydarren and Brecon.

 

MARGARY ROUTE 622

Northeast-southwest route connecting the military sites of Neath, Coelbren and Brecon.

[The evidence for the Roman road system in Southeast Wales is currently being reviewed as part of project being undertaken by GGAT for Cadw]

 

Milestones

 

SS74859682 a fragmentary milestone of Diocletian (AD 284-905) was found in 1892 at Melin Crythan on the line of the Roman road, about 1 mile south of Neath. Now in NMW (Ace no 92.64); SS75648898, SAM Gm 40; SS78348733, SS82698222 Quadrangular milestone, 46ins high, 14ins narrowing to Sins wide at the top; SS81608485.

 

Aqueduct

 

NANT Y MILWYR / CAERLEON AQUEDUCT (ST328918)

Postulated Roman aqueduct channelling water from the Dowlais Brook to the fortress at Caerleon.

 

MARITIME

 

Boat

 

BARLAND'S FARM BOAT (ST404865)

Roman boat built of oak, seemingly deliberately placed in a palaeochannel next to a bridge/jetty, which continued to be maintained afterwards, to stabilise the river edge. Its original dimensions are estimated to have been cl 1.4 x 3.2 x .8m (see Nayling et al 1994) and Nayling & McGrail (forthcoming).

Quays

 

CAERLEON ROMAN QUAY (ST33539017)

Timber quay, breakwater and possible boathouse (see Boon 1980).

 

BARLAND'S FARM STRUCTURE NO 2 (ST404865)

Waterfront structure consisting of a stone wall of rough slabs of sandstone running for c5.2m along the east edge of a north-south palaeochannel, in which had been placed a Roman boat with timber revetment, and a cluster of oak piles' running to the west (see Nayling et al 1994 and Nayling & McGrail forthcoming).

 

RELIGIOUS, RITUAL AND FUNERARY

 

Temples

 

CAERLEON TEMPLE OF DIANA (ST33729048)

Two inscriptions and statue fragment(s) indicate a temple of Diana in the area of the amphitheatre at Caerleon.

 

CAERWENT FORUM TEMPLE (ST46969056)

Excavated by NMGW in see Brewer 1993. Finds and archive with NMGW.

 

CAERWENT EXTRAMURAL TEMPLE (ST47189057)

 

LANCAYO FARM (SO363030)

Visible on aerial photographs.

 

Altars

 

CAERLEON (ST3495)

Fragment of altar (RIB 329), found in Caerleon but exact spot unknown.

 

CAERLEON ST CADOC'S CHURCHYARD (ST339906)

Altar dedicated to Salus the queen (RIB 324).

 

CAERWENT (ST468905)

Altar (RIB 310).

 

Unnamed Sites at SO5005, ST3390, ST47029050

 

Cemeteries

 

ATLANTIC TRADING ESTATE (ST1468)

Excavations (Newman & Newman forthcoming) revealed a late Roman to Early Medieval Cemetery.

 

CAERLEON ABBEYFIELD SITE (ST32909098)

Cremation cemetery on hillslopes to the north of Caerleon. Partially excavated (Evans & Maynard 1997) with adjacent areas proposed for scheduling. Finds and archive at Legionary Museum.

 

CAERLEON BULMORE ROAD CEMETERY (ST35209020)

Various burials and sepulchral monuments found along Bulmore Road as far as Little Bulmore Farm since the mid 19th century, most recent discoveries made during evaluation for proposed WRU Centre of Excellence. Finds and archives at Legionary Museum and GGAT.

 

CAERLEON CHEPSTOW HILL (ST35309070)

Area of cremation burials.

 

CAERLEON TWIN OAKS (ST3291)

Roman cemetery area, possibly an extension of that near Pont Sadwrn, Caerleon.

 

CAERLEON USK ROAD (ST34669125)

Roman cemetery area, Caerleon.

 

CAERWENT (ST458906)

Post-Roman cemetery to west of civitas capital. Earlier burials to north and south relate to early phases of occupation.

 

GELLIGAER FORT (ST13509716)

Roman cremation cemetery found in Rectory Garden in 1892.

 

GREAT HOUSE FARM, LLANDOUGH (ST16837334)

Possible Roman precursor to the early medieval cemetery excavated in 1994. Finds from the burials included 105 sherds of 3rd-4th century pottery, grave goods of beads and a 1st century brooch, hobnails and 4th century coins. Human remains require C14 dating to confirm date. Finds and archive currently with Cotswold Archaeological Trust.

 

LLANWERN GOLF COURSE (ST36278756)

Row of six north-south burials in stone cists found to northeast of Llanwern Station during construction of a new road in connection with Llanwern Garden Village in 1925.

 

PENYDARREN FORT (SO05100685)

Outside the fort, some urn-burials were found in a field northeast of Penydarren house. Presumably the cemetery of the fort.

 

USK ROMAN FORT (SO37970025)

Cemetery to south of fort (see Marvell & Maynard 1998). Finds and archives at Legionary Museum, Caerleon.

 

Multiple Burials

 

MYNYDD BYCHAN (SS96307560; SAM Gm76)

Three burials reported found in the upper fill of a ditch, which had been cut during the initial phase of occupation on the site between c50BC-50AD. Possibly date to second phase of occupation 50AD-120, when the settlement was undefended. Finds and archives at NMGW.

 

ABERNANT FARM (ST36769139)

Cist burial (body not in situ) found a short distance east of Abernant kiln other cist burials have been found near the farm.

 

DEWSTOW FARM QUARRY (ST46758860)

Roman burials, miscellaneous finds and possible paved road found 1903-4, when a quarry was opened for lime near Dewstow Farm about quarter mile north of the railway (Severn Tunnel Junction) on the road to Caerwent.

 

NASH WASTE WATER TREATMENT WORKS (ST337840)

Two inhumations found during further evaluation excavation of Roman agricultural features (PRN 5912g) in 1998.   The burials were without grave goods and in a very poor state of preservation (see Meddens & Beasley 2001)

 

HIGHFIELD (ST47419025)

Three inhumations and stone coffins found c1975, no more details.

 

Unnamed (ST34068762)

Roman remains found in a quarry. Traces of human cremation and inhumation burials, with associated objects, were found 3-4ft below the surface c!910.

 

Unnamed (ST13529682)

Roman cinerary urns containing burnt bones were found in 1910. This would seem to indicate the presence of a Roman cemetery on the SW side of the road.

 

Other burials

 

[ELY RACE COURSE VILLA (ST14727615; SAM Gm205) East-west inhumation found on villa site, IFTON MANOR (ST46508795) Roman pottery associated with E-W cist grave; ILSTON HOARD (SS55489056) Burial associated with the Ilstor, Hoard; LLANFAIR DISCOED (ST4492) Roman cremation burial, found with several coins; LLANTWIT MAJOR (SS96636854) A metal object of unknown use was found in a grave excavated in the rock at Llantwit Major, MAGOR BREWERY SEWAGE WORKS (ST4380084920) Roman burial in oak coffin found in 1978 at ST 4135 8738 during construction work on the Whitbread brewery. Bone collagen from the burial yielded a C14 date of 382-638 AD (cal) (CAR 199); MERTHYR MAWR WARREN (SS85327734) Romano British crouched inhumation burial; NEWLANDS, LLANISHEN (ST1782) the pieces of cinerary urns of the Romano-British period were found 0.6m underground embedded in loose stones when excavating in 1883 for the foundations of a conservatory on the east side of Tsfewlands'; OAK CREST, UNDY (ST435872) Roman burial in a stone sarcophagus, orientated N-S, without grave goods now in NMGW; Unnamed sites at ST33689099 Cist possibly site of Roman burial, SS56479808 Roman Cist burial, SS56579777 Cremation, SO30501480 Burial]

 

Isolated stones, dedications, sculptural fragments

 

[CAERLEON (ST3490) Six inscribed stones (RIB 331) found at Caerleon, (ST33469073) Building
stone (RIB 346), (ST33509125) Roman inscribed stone (RIB 378), (ST33159095) Roman inscribed
stone (RIB 358); CAERWENT (ST467904) Graffito on a column (RIB 313), (ST468905) Inscribed
base of statue of Mars Lenus, (ST467904) Small fragment of inscribed slab (RIB 312); NEWPORT
(ST3289) Dedication to Jupiter Dolichenus (RIB 320); NOTTAGE (SS82I781; SAM Gm 40) Stone
with 3 official Roman inscriptions & a defaced ogham; PENTRE BACH GRANGE (ST28549207)
Roman inscribed tombstone, now lost, erected to the memory of Vindutius, a Roman soldier of the
second Augusta legion, aged 45; PORTHCASSEG (ST52799763) Fragments of Roman Ae statuettes;
ROMAN CARVED STONE, GORGON'S HEAD (ST22788801) Stone with rudely incised head, showing hair, beard and an enormous mouth with teeth, in the interior south wall of Lower Machen
Church, regarded as being of Roman date; THE CAY (ST47029355) Head of a statuette of

Mars; TREDUNNOC CHURCH (ST3 7999485) Roman inscribed tombstone found fastened on the north wall of the nave, commemorating a serving legionary; TY LLWYD FARM NTPMG: 95/10 (L) (O43450145) Sub-triangular block of fine grained sandstone, carved on top with a phallic emblem, with a continuation from the glans end of the penis on the vertical face, which may represent semen (located on MAP 22); Unnamed Sites SO036098 inscribed stone found in Vaynor area, ST3390 Tombstone (RIB 380), ST46889056 Honorific inscription of the 3rd century (RIB 311), ST339907 Tombstone (RIB 362), ST33869038 Inscribed stone, ST34039057 Inscribed tombstone, ST33409074 Inscribed tombstone, ST3390 Commemorative slab (RIB 387), ST339907 Building inscription (RIB 341), ST339907 Tombstone (RIB 368), ST3490 Tombstone (RIB 365), ST3390 Tombstone (RIB 386), ST3390 Tombstone (RIB 383), ST3390 Small fragment of inscribed slab (RIB 388), ST3390 Small fragment of inscribed slab (RIB 389), ST3390 Small fragment of inscribed slab (RIB 390), ST3390 Small fragment of tombstone (RIB 393), ST34239058 Tombstone (RIB 376), ST34239058 Dedication to Fortune and Bonus Eventus, ST3390 Tombstone (RIB 384)]

 

RECREATION

 

Amphitheatres

 

CAERLEON AMPHITHEATRE (ST33849034; SAM Mm232)

Roman Amphitheatre situated outside the Fortress walls to the southwest, excavated in 1926-7 by Mortimer Wheeler. The structure is oval in design, with two main opposing entrances, and six narrower entrances, three on either side.

 

CAERWENT AMPHITHEATRE (ST41009067)

Bath houses

 

CAERLEON FORTRESS BATHS / BACK HALL STREET (ST34039057)

Partially excavated (Zienkiewicz 1986a & b) and on display. Finds and archive at Legionary Museum.

 

CAERLEON AMPHITHEATRE BATHS (ST33799033)

Roman bath ouse at Caerleon.

 

CAERLEON USKSIDE BATH HOUSE (ST344904; SAM Mm244)

A set of baths excavated by Dr Evans in 1990.

 

CAERLEON CASTLE BATHS (ST34199049)

Clearance of site laid bare part of a bath building showing work of three periods. Chronology of the building in its various developments cannot now be determined.

 

CAERWENT BATHS (ST47039036)

Roman baths.

 

CAERWENT HOUSE 28 (ST46899053)

Fragmentary remains of a bath house.

 

GELLIGAER FORT (ST13499701; SAM Gm 16)

The regimental bath building, situated in the annexe adjoining the fort.

 

LOUGHOR (SS56389791)

The remains of the sudatorium of a Roman bath were found in 1851 during construction of the GWR. Rediscovered and partially excavated in 1982-83 (Marvell & Owen-John 1997).

 

PENYDARREN FORT (SO04950666)

Outside the fort to the south, limited trenching revealed three large hypocausted rooms, walls, one or possibly two furnace-chambers and part of a stone culvert.

 

ST MARYS CHURCH RISCA (ST23679117)

Roman building found below chancel of old church.

USK (SO375006)

Part of the legionary bath house was discovered in 1965 (see Manning 1989, 134)

 

INDUSTRIAL

 

Metalworking

[See also settlements in domestic above especially Cowbridge, Machen, Monmouth and sites in defensive section]

 

BOLSTON GAER (ST04778090)

A large bed of iron cinders was discovered c!752.   A coin of Antoninus Pius was found, with a piece of fine earthen ware.

 

HIGGAR FARM, (SO489041)

Roman bloomery reported orally by Steve Clark, said to be Romano-British in origin.

 

SCHOOL ROAD, MISKIN (ST05208144)

Series of small slag dumps associated with Roman pottery.

[Unnamed Sites (SO46301499) Roman bloomery, (SO49220434) Roman bloomery, apparently damaged by ploughing, (SO50771469) Roman bloomery, found along with pieces of slag, (SOS 1301040) Roman bloomery, (SOS 1461361) Roman bloomery, this was found along with both Medieval and Roman pottery, (SOS 1831495) iron smelting remains associated with Roman pottery, (SO529136) Roman iron furnace uncovered here along with flint flakes, (SO52950235) heaps of scoriae where found centered at this site in 1859, (SO53191452) Roman bloomery, (SO53241395) a fair amount of pottery and iron slag was removed from site.]

 

Mining

 

BRANDY COVE VALLEY (SS58438760)

 

CEFN PWLL DU (ST218877)

1st century pottery was found in an old lead working, thus confirming the supposed Roman date of some of these workings.

 

DAN-Y-GRAIG QUARRY, RISCA (ST2390)

Possible Roman lead mine.

 

GOLDSLAND WOOD LEAD MINE (ST109719)

Roman lead mines at Goldsland Wood, with continued use in the medieval and post-medieval periods.

 

LLECHAU (ST01658070)

Local tradition holds that this was an area of Roman iron workings. Although sherds of Roman pot have been found in the general vicinity, the area is now opencast and has no evidence of antiquity.

 

Unnamed (ST2091887111)

Linear workings on an open slope located south side of boundary. Workings of potentially Roman date although adit leading in on northeast side is presumably of later date.

 

Quarries

 

Unnamed (ST2998)

The upper part of the lower old red sandstone west of Abergavenny has been divided into the Brownstones & the Senni Beds below, documented as utilised in the Roman period, no further evidence to confirm.

 

Unnamed (ST2896)

Sandstone deposits recorded as being utilised to re-roof the Roman barracks at Caerleon in c350 but no further evidence to confirm.

 

PORTSKEWETT HILL (ST49978840)

Suggested Roman surface quarries.

 

Pottery Kilns

 

ABERNANT FARM (ST36809140)

Roman pottery kiln of 2nd-3rd century date producing Caerleon ware, with the fragmentary remains of associated buildings, perhaps drying or repair sheds (see Webster et al forthcoming).

 

CALDICOT, BLACKBIRD ROAD (ST484876)

Kiln and pottery manufacturing debris identified during construction work in 1965-6. Possibly of 4th century date.

 

CALDICOT KILNS (ST478878)

Roman pottery kilns (6) producing greywares.

 

GELLIGAER FORT (ST13499695; SAM GM 16)

A Roman tile and pottery kiln was discovered in 1913. It was 2.5m square internally with wall 0.5m thick: Fragments of roofing tiles and mortaria were found.

 

LLANEDERYN POTTERY KILN   (ST199813)

A small pottery kiln, lined with puddled clay, and had a much-damaged flue; it contained several distorted cavetto-rim jars, possibly of late 3rd century date, producing greywares.

Records of construction activity (MAP 29)

 

MALPAS VICARAGE (ST30289015)

Centurial stone (RIB 348) found built into a wall belonging to Malpas Vicarage.

 

GOLDCLIFF STONE (ST36318238)

Roman inscribed building stone with inscription, which records 'The Century of Statorius Maximus in the 1st Cohort (built) 31 & a half paces'.

 

[Unnamed (ST336902) Roman inscribed boundary stone, (ST468905) Building stone with inscription (RIB 314), (ST33199122) Roman inscribed building stone, (ST 13259729) Building inscription naming Trajan or more probably Hadrian, (ST3490) Building inscription (RIB 340), (ST468905) Fragment of dedication inscription (RJB 315), (ST34239058) Tablet recording erection of barracks under Valerian and Gallienus (RIB 334).]

 

 

 

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