A Research Framework for the Archaeology of Wales

Southwest Wales – Radiocarbon Dates from Archaeological Sites

22/12/2003

 

 

Pal = Palaeolithic: Meso = Mesolithic: Neo = Neolithic: BA = Bronze Age: IA = Iron Age: RB = Romano-British: EM = Early Medieval: Med = Medieval: PM = Post Medieval: Modern

 

 

Site                                         Uncalibrated         Context                                                                                  Period

Lab. No.                 Date                                                                                                                                        of Date

 

Aber Camdwr II

CAR-997                                3210±70 bp            Fill of pit beneath annexe to cairn                                     BA

CAR-995                                2980±70 bp            Pit beneath standing stone                                                                BA

CAR-996                                2900±70 bp            Fill of pit external to cairn                                                   BA

 

Brawdy Hillfort

                                                2430±50 bp            Charcoal from iron-working hearths                                 IA

                                                2390±60 bp            Charcoal from iron-working hearths                                 IA

 

Bryn Cysegrfan, Llanfair Clydogau

CAR-317                                575±60 bp              Vegetation below pillow mound                                        Med

 

Bryn Maen Caerau

CAR-1071                              4820±70 bp            From feature pre-dating pre-enclosure soil                      Neo - BA

CAR –1497A                         3540±70 bp            Fill of pit 200                                                                                         BA

CAR-1497B                           3440±70 bp            Fill of pit 200                                                                                         BA

CAR-1229                  3180±70 bp     Pre-rampart occupation                                                                            BA                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

CAR-1070                              2520±70 bp            Pre-rampart occupation                                                       BA - IA

 

Caer Cadwgan

CAR-969                                2580±70 bp            Charcoal spread from burnt defensive gate                     BA - IA

CAR-968                                2360±70 bp            Charcoal spread from burnt defensive gate                     IA

 

Caer, Bayvil

CAR-291                                1290±60 bp            From cist grave cutting Iron Age defences                     EM

 

Carew Castle

                                                1680±70 bp            Primary silt of 1st phase defensive ditch                           RB - EM

                                                1250±70 bp            Lower deposits of 2nd phase defensive ditch                  EM

 

Carmarthen – Roman town and fort

CAR-290                                1770±65 bp            Branches laid down in 1st phase town defence ditch     RB

 

Carne burnt mounds

CAR-589                                3960±65 bp            From lower layer of pit associated with mound B           BA

CAR-591                                3710±65 bp            From base of pit below burnt mound B                            BA

CAR-292                                3790±70 bp            Upper fill of pit sealed by burnt mound A                       BA

CAR-496                                3400±70 bp            From make-up of mound B                                                 BA

CAR-498                                3205±70 bp            From make-up of mound B                                                 BA

CAR-497                                80±90 bp                Disturbed layer associated with mound B                       Modern

 

Carreg Coetan chambered tomb, Newport

CAR-392                                4830±80 bp            Charcoal sealed by stone kerb                                                           Neo

CAR-394                                4700±80 bp            Charcoal from socket hole of chamber                             Neo

CAR-391                                4560±80 bp            Old ground surface sealed by mound                                              Neo

CAR-393                                4470±80 bp            Charcoal from within mound                                                              Neo

 

 

Castle Bucket

CAR-588                                2340±60 bp            Charcoal associated with cremation                                 IA

 

Castell Henllys

 

Beta-71570                             1850±70 bp            Charcoal layer late in annexe sequence                            IA/RB

Beta–71571                            2230±70 bp            Charcoal twigs from gully of possible roundhouse       IA

Beta–71572                            2150±60 bp            Burnt gate post from later stone phase entrance            IA

Beta–71573                            2190±60 bp            Layer against walling of first phase stone entrance,      IA

but over rubble probably from that wall

Beta–71574                            2270±60 bp            Layer against wall face from later stone                           IA

phase entrance

Beta–71575                            2130± 60 bp           Post hole probably associated with later                         IA

stone phase entrance

 

Clegyr Boia

BM-1109                                2370±29 bp            Charcoal from Neolithic occupation – IA date                IA          

BM-1110                                1950±116 bp          Charcoal contemp with structure near fort entrance      IA - RB

 

Coygan Camp

NPL-132                 5000±95 bp            Partly charred nutshells in pit                                                            Neo

 

Coygan Cave        

BM-499  38684±2713 bp      Reindeer antler sealed below calcrete layer in cave       Pal

GrN-4400                33200±310 bp                        Calcrete from top 3cm of Lower Calcrete layer                Pal

OxA-2509               24620±320 bp                        Radius of woolly rhinoceros                                                              Pal

GrN-4423                                5820±65 bp            Bottom 2 cm of Upper Calcrete layer                                                Meso

GrN-4399                                3000±35 bp            Upper Calcrete layer in cave                                                              BA

 

Copa Hill, Cwmystwyth

BM-2908                                3690±90 bp            In-situ wooden launder                                                       BA

BM-2732                                3500±50 bp            Mine spoil (in mine)                                                                             BA

BM-2812                                3460±50 bp            In-situ fireset in mine                                                                           BA

OxA-6684                               3405±70 bp            Antler hammer in mine                                                        BA

Q-3076                    3220±70 bp            Buried mine spoil (surface)                                                 BA

Q-3078                    3210±50 bp            Buried mine spoil (surface)                                                 BA

Q-3077                    2990±190 bp          buried mine spoil (surface)                                                 BA

BM-2733                                3070±50 bp            Buried turf in infill                                                                                BA

BM-2759                                2850±80 bp            Infill in mine gallery                                                                             BA

BM-2780                                950±50 bp              Buried turf in infill                                                                                EM - Med

BM-830                  830±140 bp            Wood in backfilled shaft                                                    EM - Med

BM-2828                                40±30 bp                Timber in backfilled shaft                                                   Modern

 

Dale Promontory Fort

CAR-1036                              2760±60 bp            Occupation deposit sealing early defences                     BA

CAR-1035                              2740±70 bp            Occupation deposit sealing early defences                     BA

CAR-1034                              2730±70 bp            Occupation deposit sealing early defences                     BA

 

Daylight Rock, Caldey Island

OxA-2245                               9040±90 bp            Hazel nutshell fragments from fissure with lithics          Meso

OxA-2246                               9030±80 bp            Hazel nutshell fragments from fissure with lithics          Meso

OxA-2247                               8850±80 bp            Hazel nutshell fragments from fissure with lithics          Meso

 

 

 

 

Disgwylfa Fawr round barrow

HAR-2187                              3860±70 bp            Large primary ‘dug-out’ in barrow                                    BA

HAR-2677                              3300±80 bp            Small secondary ‘dug-out’ in barrow                                               BA

 

Dolaucothi Gold Mine

HAR-2709                              2040±70 bp            From below ground water wheel                                       IA - RB

SWAN-37                              1890±60 bp            Built-up edge of base of ‘motte’                                        RB

SWAN-38                              2630±70 bp            Hollow close to ‘motte’                                                       BA - IA

 

 

Dolaucothi, Annell Leat

GRN-16553                            1175±15 bp            Peat filling leat                                                                      EM

GRN-16720                            1085±20 bp            Alkali extract from peat filling leat                                     EM

 

Felin Fulbrook burnt mound

CAR-469                                3875±70 bp            Charcoal within burnt mound                                                            BA

 

Freshwater West

Q-530                                      5960±120 bp          Foreshore peat with associated lithics                                             Meso

 

Glandy Cross Complex

Pantymenyn linear enclosure and pit circle

CAR-1462                              3540±70 bp            Charcoal from lower fill of central hearth                         BA

CAR-1496                              3530±70 bp            Charcoal from lower fill of pit                                             BA

CAR-1492                              3450±60 bp            Charcoal from lower fill of central hearth                         BA

 

Kensington Villa Neolithic structure

CAR-1495                              5510±70 bp            Charcoal from hollow                                                                          Neo

 

Yr Allor pit circle

CAR-1491                              3630±70 bp            Charcoal from recut of pit                                                   BA

CAR-1464                              3460±70 bp            Charcoal form recut of pit                                                   BA

CAR-1490                              3550±70 bp            Charcoal from below Collared Urn in pit                          BA

 

PRN 37550                          

CAR-1230                              2830±70 bp            Charcoal from pit fill                                                                            BA

 

Castell Garw enclosure

CAR-1494                              2570±60 bp            Charcoal from pre-enclosure turf line                                               BA - IA

 

Gors standing stone

CAR-957                                3290±70 bp            From an close to the standing stone                                                BA

 

Great Castle Head

BETA-135352                        2610±60 bp            From post hole                                                                     BA - IA

BETA-135351                        2460±30 bp            From scoop contemporaneous with primary defence    IA

BETA-135353                        2100±70 bp            Burnt layer behind defensive bank                                   IA

BETA-135350                        930±70 bp              Internal area butting retaining wall to defences              EM - Med

 

Great Pale round cairn

CAR-1112                              3620±60 bp            Pit pre-dating cairn.                                                                             BA

CAR-1111                              1060±50 bp            Pit from stone clearance S of cairn                                    EM

 

Greyfriars, Carmarthen

BETA-113169                        950±60 bp              Fill of a corn-drying kiln                                                      EM - Med             

BETA-113170                        940±60 bp              Fill of a corn-drying kiln                                                      EM - Med

 

Little Hoyle Cave

ANU-4350                             20800±900bp.Bone from Red Sandy Silt                                                           Pal

ANU-4347                             20100±1100bpBone from Red Sandy Silt                                                          Pal

ANU-4348                             18200±1300bp Bone from Red Sandy Silt                                                         Pal

ANU-4349                             17050±1000bp Bone from Red Sandy Silt                                                         Pal

OxA-3304                               4930±80 bp            Human mandible from infill of shaft or `chimney'           Neo

OxA-3303                               4660±80 bp            Human mandible from infill of shaft or `chimney'           Neo

OxA-3306                               4880±90 bp            Human mandible from infill of shaft or `chimney'           Neo

OxA-3305                               4750±75 bp            Human mandible from infill of shaft or `chimney'           Neo

 

Llancynfelin Mine

BM-2916                                3380±40 bp            buried mine spoil (surface)                                                 BA

BM-2929                                1000±60 bp            Vegetation over buried spoil                                                              EM - Med

 

Llangynog II defended enclosure

HAR-852                                1850±70 bp            Charcoal from spread of burning in interior of fort         IA- RB

HAR-853                                1840±80 bp            From post-hole in interior of fort                                       IA -RB

HAR-851                                1820±70 bp            Charcoal from spread of burning in interior of fort         IA -RB

 

 

Llansteffan Castle Iron Age fort

HAR-477                                2470±70 bp            Primary post hole beneath defensive bank                      IA

HAR-476                                2460±70 bp            Primary silt in defensive ditch                                            IA

HAR-475                                2450±90 bp            Gully fronting defensive bank                                           IA

 

Llanychlwydog Church

CAR-918                                1060±60 bp            Skeleton in cist grave in cemetery                                     EM

 

Llawhaden Group of Small Defended Enclosures

Woodside Camp

CAR-679                                3480±70 bp            Charcoal from pit sealed by buried soil                            BA

CAR-760                                2200±60 bp            Charcoal from layer in the base of rampart                      IA

CAR-735                                2000±70 bp            Charcoal from beneath 1st phase of outwork bank          IA

CAR-462                                1980±60 bp            Occupation contemporary with stone rampart                IA

CAR-733                                1960±70 bp            Charcoal from ditch, post-dating 2nd phase outwork      IA

CAR-678                                1900±60 bp            Charcoal from pit associated with house                         IA - RB

CAR-457                                1870±60 bp            Occupation associated with turf rampart                         IA - RB

CAR-673                                1000±60 bp            Charcoal from pit cutting post ring of house                  EM - Med

 

Dan-y-Coed Enclosure

CAR-705                                2080±70 bp            Charcoal from a pre-rampart burnt mound                       IA

CAR-706                                2070±70 bp            Charcoal from hollow immediately pre-rampart               IA

CAR-676                                2050±60 bp            Charcoal from hearth in roundhouse                                                IA

CAR-674                                1920±60 bp            Charcoal from hearth post-dating at structure                IA- RB

CAR-734                                1900±60 bp            Charcoal associated with pre-rampart features               IA - RB

CAR-665                                1850±70 bp            Charcoal from rubbish outside rectangular structure    IA - RB

CAR-675                                1710±60 bp            Charcoal sealed below square structure                          RB

CAR-1263                              1660±60 bp            Infill layer sealed beneath structure                                  RB

CAR-677                                1650±60 bp            Charcoal in rubbish in secondary fill of ditch                 RB

CAR-1265                              1620±70 bp                                                                                                                            RB

CAR-1264                              1340±60 bp                                                                                                                            EM

CAR-1262                              730±60 bp              Charcoal from late pit                                                                          Med

 

Drim Camp

CAR-559                                2410±80 bp            Gully outside enclosure                                                      IA

CAR-560                                1920±70 bp            From 4-poster set across entrance of enclosure             IA - RB

CAR-474                                1900±70 bp            Hollow in interior, late stages of primary occupation    IA - RB

CAR-557                                1850±60 bp            From 4-poster set across entrance of enclosure             IA -RB

CAR-473                                1310±60 bp            Charcoal from post-hole of building                                 EM

 

Broadway Enclosure

CAR-493                                2450±70 bp            Pre-rampart occupation                                                       IA

CAR-465                                2420±60 bp            Pre-rampart occupation                                                       IA

CAR-401                                2410±70 bp            Pre-rampart occupation                                                       IA

 

Holgan Camp

CAR-763                                3280±70 bp            Charcoal from pit pre-dating inner rampart                      BA

CAR-761                                2480±70 bp            From early occupation layer                                                               IA

CAR-787                                2280±70 bp            From early occupation layer                                                               IA

CAR-785a                              2240±65 bp            From layer representing a late phase of occupation      IA

CAR-762                                2230±70 bp            From early occupation layer                                                               IA

CAR-786                                2160±70 bp            From early occupation layer                                                               IA

CAR-785b                              2140±65 bp            From layer representing a late phase of occupation      IA

 

Pilcornswell Camp

CAR-400                                3250±70 bp            Charcoal from pre-rampart pit                                            BA

CAR-464                                2510±70 bp            Charcoal from burnt out timber in rampart                       IA

CAR-463                                2290±60 bp            Charcoal from burnt out timber in rampart                       IA

CAR-399                                2240±60 bp            Charcoal from burnt out timber in rampart                       IA

 

Bodringallt Enclosure

CAR-467                                2120±60 bp            Charcoal layer in ditch, primary occupation                    IA

CAR-466                                2100±60 bp            Charcoal from secondary occupation in interior             IA

 

Longbury Bank

BETA-52350                          1560±70 bp            Base of large post hole                                                       RB - EM

BETA-52349                          1510±60 bp            Post hole on corner of structure                                        RB - EM

 

Lydstep Pig

OxA-1412                               5300±100 bp          From pig with embedded microlith                                    Meso - Neo

 

Merlin’s Hill

CAR-958                                2310±60 bp            Occupation pre-dating ‘secondary’ rampart dumps      IA

CAR-959                                2100±70 bp            Occupation pre-dating ‘secondary’ rampart dumps      IA

 

Morfa Bacas fish traps, River Loughor

SWAN-239                            290±60 bp              Wooden stake from trap                                                     PM

SWAN-240                            140±60 bp              Wooden stake from trap                                                     PM - Modern

 

Morfa Mawr burnt mounds

CAR-458                                1180±60 bp            From make-up of burnt mound                                          EM

 

Mynydd Llangyndeyrn standing stones

BIRM-950                              3090±100 bp          From pit close to a standing stone                                    BA

 

Nab Head I

OxA-1495                               9210±80 bp            Hazel nutshell fragments associated with lithics            Meso

OxA-1496                               9110±80 bp            Hazel nutshell fragments associated with lithics            Meso

 

Nab Head II

OxA-1497                               8070±80 bp            Charcoal associated with lithic assemblage                    Meso

OxA-860                 7360±90 bp            Charcoal from shallow pit in lithic scatter                        Meso

OxA-1498                               4950±80 bp            Charcoal associated with lithic assemblage                    Meso

 

OxA-861                 ?????                      Charcoal from dense lithic scatter

 

Nantyerarian Mine

BM-2930                                3470±60 bp            Buried mine spoil                                                                 BA

 

Narberth Castle cemetery

UB-4784                 843±38 bp              Human bone from cemetery at castle                                                EM - Med

 

Ogof-y-Ychen, Caldey Island

BIRM-340                              22350±620 bp        Rhinoceros scapula, associated with lithic artefacts     Pal

OxA-2574                               7020±100 bp          Human mandible                                                                  Meso

 

Parc Maen, Llangolman

CAR-570                                3550±70 bp            Charcoal-filled pit below kerb of cairn                              BA

CAR-495                                3490±80 bp            Fill of a BA urn                                                                     BA

CAR-567                                3330±70 bp            Charcoal spread external to cairn                                      BA

CAR-494                                3280±70 bp            Charcoal-filled pit external to cairn                                    BA

CAR-568                                3240±70 bp            Charcoal-filled pit below charcoal spread                        BA

CAR-569                                3180±60 bp            Charcoal-filled pit external to cairn                                    BA

 

Parry’s  Castle Farm burnt mound

BETA-159459                        3750±80 bp            Charcoal from burnt mound                                                               BA

 

Pembrey Mountain

CAR-105                                2285±45 bp            Carbonised grain from pre-rampart occupation              IA

 

Pen cerrig y mwyn Mine

BETA-120591                        1080±60 bp            In-situ fireset                                                                                        EM

 

Pendinas Lochtyn

CAR-1341                              2800±70 bp            Isolated post-hole                                                                                BA

CAR-1340                              1750±60 bp            Charcoal, wood, from in situ post                                     RB

 

Penycoed

CAR-768                                2110±60 bp            From drain leading from roundhouse                                               IA

CAR-769                                2025±60 bp            From interior palisade trench                                                             IA

CAR-711                                2005±60 bp            From post hole                                                                     IA

CAR-712                                1975±60 bp            Layer at base of defensive ditch                                       IA

CAR-732                                1715±60 bp            From drain around small roundhouse                                               IA - RB

CAR-555                                900±65 bp              From layer over defensive bank                                        EM - Med

 

Plas Gogerddan

CAR-994                                4700±70 bp            From pit with food deposit                                                 Neo

CAR-993                                2950±70 bp            From small pit close to standing stone                             BA

CAR-1073                              2770±60 bp            From pit cut by ring-ditch                                                   BA

CAR-1072                              2150±60 bp            From cremation in fill of ring-ditch                                    IA

CAR-1045                              1580±60 bp            Coffin stain                                                                                           RB - EM

 

Plasgwyn Farm burnt mound

BETA-159460                        3660±70 bp            Charcoal from pit associated with burnt mound             BA

 

Porth y Rhaw

SWAN-101                            2470±70 bp            Hearth within defensive bank                                                            IA

BETA-124342                        2430±60 bp            Hearth within defensive bank                                                            IA

BETA-124341                        2420±80 bp            Cut to rear of defensive bank                                                             IA

BETA-124344                        2320±90 bp            Roundhouse gully                                                                               IA

BETA-124345                        2170±70 bp            Upper fill of internal gully                                                   IA

BETA-124343                        1720±70 bp            Occupation deposit within stone-built roundhouse      RB

 

Redberth

BETA-10158                          4965±57 bp            Charcoal from the fill of a post hole                                  Neo

BETA-10159                          4791±57 bp            Charcoal from the fill of a post hole                                  Neo

BETA-10153                          4656±67 bp            Charcoal from the secondary fill of a linear pit                Neo

BETA-10156                          4553±62 bp            Charcoal from a spread of burnt material                         Neo

BETA-10157                          4024±68 bp            Charcoal from the fill of a small pit, by roundhouse       Neo

BETA-10154                          3761±56 bp            Charcoal from the fill of a post hole                                  Neo - BA

BETA-10155                          377±57 bp              Charcoal from the fill of a linear pit                                   PM

 

Rhos-y-Clegyrn

HAR-1139                              160±80 bp              Charcoal from pit close to standing stone                       PM - Modern

 

Roman road west of Carmarthen, Whitland excavation

BETA-841787                        2100±80 bp            Timber from immediate pre-drain road                              IA

BETA-841788                        2030±80 bp            Timber from immediate pre-drain road                              IA

 

St Brides Cist Cemetery

CAR-917                                1000±70 bp            Femur from cist grave                                                                          EM

CAR-931                                150±60 bp              Bone from dug grave                                                                           PM - Modern

 

St Clears medieval town

CAR-1343                              1630±60 bp            Buried soil beneath town’s defensive bank                    RB - EM

CAR-1344                              1040±60 bp            Charcoal incorporated in town’s defensive bank           EM

CAR-1342                              900±60 bp              Buried soil beneath town’s defensive bank                    EM - Med

CAR-1345                              840± 60 bp             Buried soil beneath town’s defensive bank                    EM - Med

 

St Ishmaels standing stone

CAR-315                                3305±70 bp            Secondary pit fill                                                                  BA

 

St. John’s and St. Teulyddog’s Priory, Carmarthen

CAR-288                                1215±60 bp            Ditch beneath medieval cemetery                                     EM

CAR-289                                870±60 bp              Limekiln associated with early phase of church             EM - Med

 

 

Stackpole Warren

CAR-475                                3570±70 bp            Roundhouse destruction - pre-standing stone               BA

CAR-100                                3350±70 bp            Roundhouse destruction - pre-standing stone                               BA

CAR-476                                3130±70 bp            Cremation                                                                                              BA

CAR-101                                2890±70 bp            Cremation                                                                                              BA

CAR-845                                2770±60 bp            From settlement enclosure Site G                                      BA

CAR-843                                2710±70 bp            From settlement enclosure Site G                                      BA

CAR-145                                2350±70 bp            From ditch of linear earthwork                                           IA

CAR-103                                2240±60 bp            Animal bone from structure Site B                                    IA

CAR-104                                2110±60 bp            Human bone – burial                                                                           IA

CAR-102                                2060±60 bp            Animal bone from Site A                                                    IA

CAR-144                                2040±70 bp            Charcoal from above shell midden Site H                        IA

 

Troedrhiwgwinau

CAR-1046                              3270±70 bp            Charcoal from close to base of burnt mound                  BA

 

Tro’r Derlwyn

BETA-122921                        270±60 bp              Make-up layer below ‘floor’ of building                          PM

 

Tyn y fron Mine

BETA-120592                        3640±50 bp            Buried mine spoil                                                                 BA

 

Walesland Rath

NPL-245                 2160±90 bp            Layer stratified between Phase 1 and 2 banks                IA

NPL-244                 2035±90 bp            Ash layer with crucible, on top of primary ditch silt      IA
 

 

Wiston medieval town

CAR-1441                              1150±70 bp            From large pit in a burgage plot                                         EM - Med

 

Woodbarn Rath

CAR-825                                2100±60 bp            Carbonised branches in rampart extension                      IA

CAR-826                                2060±60 bp            Deposit incorporated in rampart extension                      IA

 

 

 

 

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